A century ago most business was conducted on a good faith handshake and usually concluded well for all parties involved. These days business has become much more complex with differing credit options, terms, and special options that have led companies to put a lot of time into their account receivable departments. Unfortunately even with technology the business climate has also seen a rise in delinquent accounts that are hard to track down and get paid. This is where professional recovery consultants play an important role getting those payments in and keeping your company on track without wasting precious in house resources to try and recover the monies due.
With the economy still struggling to make a comeback many smaller companies are still trying to find their way and when it comes time to pay bills they often try to pay as late as they can.
Better Health Outcomes
- According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the pharmaceutical industry develops and produces products that help treat a variety of diseases, saving millions of lives and helping people suffering from diseases and illnesses to recover and lead more productive lives. The pharmaceutical industry develops drugs that treat every type of condition imaginable, such as influenza, sexually transmitted diseases, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hepatitis, Parkinson's disease and cancer, to name a few. Many of these are devastating and life-altering diseases, and these products help keep patients alive longer.
- While some may view the cost of pharmaceutical drugs as a negative aspect of the industry, you can also see cost as a benefit. According to the Pharmaceutcial Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), the market share of generic pharmaceuticals was between 42 and 58 percent in 2006. What this means is generic drugs are increasingly available to patients, which drives down costs. Most reports in the media discuss the high cost of drugs and lack of access for certain patients, but the reality is that drugs today are cheaper and more accessible than ever before due to increased competition in the marketplace. Additionally, economic development in countries like India and China are driving down global prices for pharmaceutical products even more.
- Pharmaceutical companies employed nearly 300,000 people in the United States in 2008, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and nearly 87 percent of the companies in the pharmaceutical industry employed more than 100 workers in 2008. The tax benefits to the United States are substantial as well. Pfizer alone posted $44 billion worth of revenue in 2008, according to Contract Pharma. The economic climate impacts the pharmaceutical industry, but profitable companies result in more taxable revenue for the U.S. People may criticize this amount of profit from one company, but consider this: The underlying goal of every single business is to make money. People single out pharmaceutical companies for making profits, but it's important to remember that they also create products that save millions of lives.
- Due to the complexity and the management of corporate proprietary processes, positions in this industry are highly valued. Higher levels of education are the norm in this industry. Research technicians are one of these positions because they conduct experiments under the watchful eyes of the lead scientist. Bachelors’ degrees are usually the minimum educational requirement, with masters and doctorate degrees preferred in the specialty areas. Workers on the factory floor on the other hand can get by with a high school diploma or General Equivalency Diploma and a certificate of ability to work with forklifts, as an example.
- If scientific research is your qualification, the reasons for joining a pharmaceutical company (pharma) may lie in the grand flexibility of conducting various research models or focusing on one thread of a larger spool, such as dedicating years to finding a process that may one day cure a disease.
After a discovery is found, the process is passed along to the other members of the research team such as the biotechnologist and on to others as well to find any variant that may harm or improve the quality of the newly discovered development or culture.
- In 2006, pharma and other medical manufacturing provided over 290,000 positions. Most in-facility positions are located Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, California, Texas, New Jersey, Indiana, North Carolina and Puerto Rico according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there should be a 23.7 increase in all positions by the year 2016. Most workers in the industry have a minimum of a bachelor degree and there are twice as many individuals with degrees as in any other industry.
- For persons with virtually any type of sales experience, the top of the mountain would be pharmaceutical sales. The benefits are simply outstanding and include a nice car with fun toys and two credit cards, one for gasoline and the other for entertaining customers, which happen to be physicians. The main responsibility is to convince the physician that the product you have works better than the product from the competitor. Physicians are showered with pens, cups, promotional samples, prescription forms and other materials that bear the product’s name and logo.
Success in the ability to convince physicians to prescribe a particular product is tracked by how much of the product is sold and/or ordered from the pharmacies in the zip code during a given time, which happens to be in the assigned territory.
The Final Word
- The pharmaceutical industry is a challenging and rewarding place to work, but be aware of companies that make false claims about preparing people to enter the industry by offering certificates of completion and/or training of some sort. Unless a company is recruiting right from the university, chances are that they want people with industry experience or verifiable success in advertising sales. The reason for this is simple: if success is proven in the advertising industry, then you know first hand what rejection is. In pharma sales, you will receive plenty of rejection.
- Western fashion has evolved over centuries. The 16th century in Europe saw apparel sewn with broad shoulders and heavy-cut velvet decorated by intricate lace and fine gold. This was especially seen in the fashion worn by aristocrats. Fast-forward two centuries, and women’s fashion consisted of domed skirts and cinched waists. Western society leaped into the 20th century with short skirts baring leg. As the fashion industry has evolved, designers have perfected new designs and brought into style new fabrics.
In the 19th century, English settlers brought the textile industry to the U.S. Women in the U.S. during the 1800s had their dresses tailor-made. As the tailors noticed similarities among the women for whom they sewed, they developed patterns. Hence, pattern making was born. Apprentices learned the patterns and how to make them, becoming designers and dressmakers. The fashion industry continued to evolve into the mega-marketing industry it has now become.
- The fashion industry is made up of clothing manufacturers, designers, models, behind-the-scenes make-up and hair artists, merchandisers and buyers. The single element common among these roles is that these professions are extremely creative. Each professional has been trained in a highly specialized field.
The fashion industry is important to the culture of each society, as the byproducts of each designer provide a style or identification of the person wearing the clothes. Style is an identity marker, and the fashion industry is essential to transforming individuals solely by what they wear.
- Aside from designing one-piece wonders for elite clientele such as Hollywood mega stars, which serves as a catalyst for more economical couture designs, the fashion industry clothes us all. Be it famous brand-name jeans or brands marketed solely by retail chain stores, the fashion industry is the source of all the designs, material choices and marketing via models showing off the clothes on Paris, Milan or New York runways.
- The fashion industry is composed of two primary sectors: ready-to-wear (couture) and haute couture (high fashion). Ready-to-wear makes up the bulk of fashion because it is less expensive than haute couture and far more easily accessible. Designers showing promise might make their mark designing haute couture.
- The fashion industry spans the globe. Western societies have metamorphosed drastically since earlier centuries. Asian societies, too, like India’s enormous Bollywood film industry, make use of extremely diverse and talented pools of designers who dress every movie’s heroines and heroes.
- Determine what type of clothing you want to buy. Wholesale clothing includes many different types of items. You can choose to buy wholesale outwear such as hats and coats. You can also choose to buy dresses, shorts, shirts and skirts. Buy wholesale clothing for a specific season at least three months in advance. Orders for fall items should be placed no later than early June.
- Obtain an EIN. An EIN is an Employee Identification Number. The IRS assigns an EIN to people in business for tax purposes. You can get one for free from the IRS website. An EIN identifies you as a member of the apparel industry to other industry members. Some wholesalers will let you purchase from their stores without one. Many will not.
- Investigate wholesalers. Wholesale clothing retailers are quite varied. Some wholesalers specialize in a specific area of clothing such as sportswear or formal gowns. Others offer clothing for purchase in many different areas. If you are opening up a clothing store, you may have to work with many different wholesale clothing vendors in order to stock your store.
- Buy clothing. Many wholesale clothing vendors typically have both a retail store and a website. Buying from a retail store can be easier if you live near one. If you don’t have a wholesale clothing vendor in your area, you can still order items online. Look closely at the website. A site should have a picture of each item for sale. The site should also include a detailed description of the clothing offered including the type of material used, the sizes offered and the composition of details such as buttons and other fastenings.
- Place an order. Orders from retail stores can be delivered to your door if you don’t have a truck for larger items. Wholesale clothing orders can also be shipped to your address from a website. Allow at least a week for delivery.
- Cafés generate much of their revenues from coffee, a product that accounted for more than 83 percent of hot beverage sales in 2012, according to the Small Business Development Center Network. Tea and other nonalcoholic drinks are also favorites among café customers. However, snacks and light meals contribute significantly toward the overall revenues of cafes.
- The coffee and snack shops industry is a $30 billion market that grew at average annual rates of 2.7 percent between 2009 and 2013, according to a report the IBISWorld website in 2014. This shows the industry grew at steady rates through those years, despite the negative impact of the recession that rocked the economy from 2008 to 2010.
The Competitive Landscape
- Independently owned cafes can thrive, provided the owners correctly identify their niches and avoid direct competition with the big brand name stores. According to Business Valuation Marketing, the top 50 coffee shop companies–think Starbucks–have captured around 70% of the U.S. market. Small companies can compete by offering products the larger competitors don’t provide. For example, cafes offering individually brewed coffee in exotic flavors can generate a large following among coffee enthusiasts.
The opening line to Rudyard Kipling’s poem “If” says “If you can keep your head when all about you are losing theirs and blaming it on you…” You know the feeling, because that line has been looping through your head since the last computer crash or data breach got you called on the carpet. In spite of making the case for increased storage capability time and again, you’re now responsible for the fact that your company’s life line is down. And there’s no money in the budget to build the data center with the capacity needed to remedy the situation. But there is a solution more and more companies are turning to this year, colocation – storing data in a cloud configuration off site at a facility where other companies also lease space for certain IT needs. These flexible arrangements are sometimes called carrier hotels.
You told the boss the year end projection called for a significant increase in output storage capability but he just couldn’t wrap his head around the concept of storage in the cloud. (Don’t point to the sky when explaining the cloud. People think their pin numbers are floating around up there being photo bombed by a drone.) Even the thought of a colocation might be too much unless you show pictures and tell him how 76% of CEO’s have turned to colocation service providers in the last two years alone. Remind him he doesn’t have to lease more space and incur the added expense of contractors, architects, builders, and the IT personnel that goes with it. And even if you do squeeze it into the budget, there’s still the possibility that growth will generate the need for more capacity in a few years. After all, growth and success are your goals. If this is the case for your company, it might be time to check into the carrier hotel.
Colocation facilities provide the physical location for the server, storage and networking equipment of many diverse firms and provide bonus services such as a variety of telecommunication and network services at a significant cost savings. You know saving money is a big deal to everyone in the organization. Just the mention of the big bucks you saved by using a Groupon Coupon to buy your sports gear for the big game got you kudos. Most of your coworkers didn’t even know about the Sports Hub at Belk where you can find branded merchandise to represent any team in your fantasy league, or local franchise. And they were really impressed by the savings the online coupons that instantly give you up to 40% off and free shipping. It’s like a coupon in a cloud. Ummm maybe he’ll understand that.
The particular ground that can be found underneath a lot of the residences within the Houston community is frequently identified as “expansive” earth. For the reason that it has a high content of clay. Any time clay ever gets soaked, it swells. As soon as clay dries, it shrinks. This clay part of the particular earth in the Houston area dirt combined with the region’s about yet again off yet again rainfall and also drought weather cycle leads to a good part of dirt mobility, which makes a lot of homes’ footings settle plus break, which generates problems with your home itself. Indications that you’ve a dilemma consist of splits in wall space, settling, eroding fireplace bricks, splits within the foundation or slab and also moisture getting into the underground room.
Fortunately, when grabbed in time, many cornerstone troubles can be fixed by firms including the Foundation Repair Pros Houston (foundationrepairhoustontx.net). These people have a very good number of options up their very own sleeve, anything from rerouting the particular rain fall to steel reinforcements, press pilings, heavy-duty smart jacks plus much more. The important thing if you think maybe it’s likely you have a problem is to call earlier rather than in the future, due to the fact unquestionably the more time the condition goes unaddressed, the more damaged it gets, plus the more it’ll cost you to repair.
Engineers are generally good at what they do –design products, test each part for safety, calculate cost, ensure reliability, assess how good the overall design is and do what it takes to make it a value-addition for the company. Their education, experience and training come to the fore and their certifications and licenses enhance their worth. Although they know their products like the back of their hands, when it comes to technical writing, they’re way off the mark and understandably so, for just as a writer (typically) is not good at designing products, engineers cannot be expected to be good writers.
Although many companies debate long and hard as to whether to hire a technical writer or to outsource that writing task to specialized companies created solely for that purpose, they generally would be better off if they did the latter. That’s the first reason then to outsource technical writing and documentation.
Engineers lack the skills necessary for technical writing
Typically, guides and user manuals designed by engineers for end users are woefully inadequate as it’s just not possible for the skilled specialists to perceive things in the same light as the end user, who is generally an untutored specimen. Things that seem blatantly obvious to the engineers will need to be explained in simple terms so that the end users can understand. This is outside the realm of an engineer’s experience.
Outsourcing better than hiring technical writers
If companies don’t have indigenous talent that can produce technical documentation, they either have to hire someone who can do the job well or outsource. Getting the right person for the job and that too in a restricted time span could be rather difficult –what could be even worse is if the wrong person is hired. When such tasks are outsourced to companies specifically engaged in such jobs, the result is positive– quick, quality turnout, products enter the market faster and the end user is happy with the manuals or guides, because there’s nothing equal to a correct, simplified and well-explained piece of writing or documentation.
Saves time and money
Hiring a technical writer could be an expensive affair and with internal talent unavailable, outsourcing is probably the best bet when it comes to saving time and money. The companies to which the work is outsourced have skilled people that can turn out the job faster and more affordably. They use software tools and use templates, thereby introducing a sense of uniformity and consistency throughout the entire manual. This high degree of professionalism augurs well for everyone. The company that outsourced the material pays only for work done and hence saves money, and as the guides and manuals are turned out many times faster, precious time is also saved.
Try before you use
Generally when companies outsource their technical writing and documentation to the specialist companies, they get an opportunity to try out the services before making a commitment. In case they are satisfied with the output, they can go ahead or else put a stop without incurring any loss from their end. The companies outsourcing their work are in total control at all times.
- Customer Loyalty is enhanced
Manuals and documents that are well written and well explained engage end users positively and this invariably has a positive impact on their buying patterns. Customers are more likely to purchase products from companies with whom they have a positive experience when they engage with competent, well-written and explained content.
Outsourcing makes a lot of sense, especially if the company is small and still growing, if the number of projects handled are less, if the number of product launches are not too many, if you’re on a shoestring budget and cannot afford the luxury of a hiring a permanent technical writer and if you don’t have the internal talent.
With regards to hand tools, there is no denying the quality in one that keeps going quite a while. There are a lot of solid brands out there, yet generally individuals like to stay with a brand that gives them the best esteem furthermore a dependable tool. Be that as it may, in the course of recent years, the best approach to purchase tools has changed predominantly in light of the fact that handyman shop costs keep on going up. Purchasing online has really turned into an exceptionally famous method for getting your tools, particularly if you need to purchase a few of them or costly ones.
If one has never worked with a hand tool already, this would clearly be an intense errand. Getting used to the tools’ handling is difficult. If one needs to purchase these tools, the individual could either take a gander at a nearby store or seek on the Web. The method of purchasing is totally the decision of the purchaser. Numerous dependably lean toward Web as it not just helps one to spare cash and time yet it gives a point by point depiction about the tools. While picking these tools ensure, you satisfy every one of the necessities and remember the monetary allowance.
Keeping it Right:
The cutting tools arrive in a unit that is for the apprentices. This pack offers you to get to some assistance with learning the fundamental guidelines of the business. The tools that make up the unit are anything but difficult to keep up and utilize. This ought to be your initial step and you could proceed with your adventure from here. The voyage has numerous more steps and arranges in store however. The saw is one of the tools that fit this classification splendidly.
Purchasing of hand tools is not a regular action. Along these lines, you ought to ensure that you commit this action a decent and error free one. When you pick the hand tools you need to purchase, ensure you remember components, for example, quality and unwavering quality personality the top of the priority list. While purchasing these tools, you ought to touch them to ensure they have incredible quality. Ensure you are alright with them, as you would be utilizing the tools for quite a while. It is fitting to purchase products that have removable handles, as they are anything but difficult to keep up and clean. Checking these products in individual is dependably a decent alternative.
When you have purchased these tools, the following vital step is upkeep. If you deal with the tools, they will clearly last more. This would thusly help you to maintain a strategic distance from minor wounds and mishaps. It is an added point of interest to know the cleaning process for these products from baileigh. If you have even the smallest uncertainty, ensure you take some expert help. When you have seen or learnt the procedure, in due time, you have to handle the cleaning and changing of sharp edges precisely.
Whichever spray gun model you select, you’ll wish to master one or two all-purpose spraying techniques to make best use of your investment and make better the quality of your painting. That’s why when using your spray gun, bear in your mind that holding the gun nearer applies more paint to the facade and has a thinner spray pattern, at the same time as holding the gun farther away ends in a thinner cover and a thicker spray pattern.
As a result, the majority of spraying methods depend on the sort of sprayer you select; as a result, check with your user’s manual for more particular rules and correct use of your equipment. Here are some common tips that apply to nearly all sprayer guns:
Check the sprayer on a large part of cardboard or other piece of material, regulating the sprayer and your technique as required to reach a consistent spray pattern
To put off paint buildup, start your stroke earlier than you pull the trigger and then carry on the stroke after releasing the trigger. Take into account that with polyurethane sprayers you can achieve really great result. That why just click here for more info about polyurethane spray gun selection and best recommendations from the experts .
Move the sprayer in a flat motion and at a steady pace
Spray directly at the surface and stay away from swinging your arm backward and forward.
Try framing a four-sided figure on the surface and filling it in or spraying a net with vertical lines, then fill the part with horizontal or vertical paint strokes
Once you have started to work, do not leave the spray gun inactive for more than 20 minutes or the paint will start to harden
When you have completed painting for the day or are taking a break of considerable length, be certain to clean the paint from the part, cautiously following the producer’s instructions
In addition, here are some safety measures when working with Graco Probler P2:
Spray gun is mainly functional for painting extremely textured, multi-piece or hard-to-reach surfaces with lots of nooks and crannies. These surfaces will need you to watchfully mask the area and dig lots of drop cloths. Never apply a sprayer on stormy or even breezy days.
To keep away from accidents or injury, at all times put on protective clothing and gloves, in addition to goggles.
Earlier than you clean a power sprayer, you need to turn off and unplug the unit. After that pull the spray-gun trigger to discharge the remaining pressure in the hose. In addition, be sure to set the security lock on the spray gun when you are not spraying.
Marion Adams is established as a reviewer for a range of Internet content networks, who covers a variety of spray equipment topics such as Graco Probler P2 selection and other related matters. A restless drifter of digital community and a true connoisseur of anything noteworthy for the spray equipment.
I did not want to pay hundreds of dollars for software I did not need. I just needed to make some nice invoices for billing clients. I did not need to set up a record keeping system. I already have one that works just fine for me. However, clients nowadays expect computer generated invoices, so I decided to visit invoicehome.com to see what they offered. I think it is pretty cool that they offer use of some free invoice templates. They are basic ones, but they are nice.
I decided to go for one of the other templates. I found one that perfectly represented my business. I could not have found a better invoice layout with graphics if I paid someone to make it for me.
A spring is a versatile article used to store mechanical vitality. Springs are typically made out of spring steel. There are an extensive number of spring outlines; in regular use the term frequently alludes to curl springs. Little springs can be twisted from pre-solidified stock, while bigger ones are produced using toughened steel and solidified after manufacture. Some non-ferrous metals are additionally utilized including phosphor bronze and titanium for parts requiring erosion resistance and beryllium copper for springs conveying electrical current (as a result of its low electrical resistance).
Torsion springs are springs that works by torsion or contorting; that is, an adaptable versatile article that stores mechanical vitality when it is bent. When it is contorted, it applies a power (really torque) the other way, relative to the sum (point) it is wound. There are two sorts. A torsion bar is a straight bar of metal or elastic that is subjected to winding (shear stress) about its pivot by torque connected at its closures.
A more fragile structure utilized as a part of touchy instruments, called a torsion fibre comprises of a fibre of silk, glass, or quartz under strain, that is turned about its pivot. The other sort, a helical torsion spring, is a metal bar or wire fit as a fiddle of a helix (loop) that is subjected to winding about the curl’s pivot by sideways strengths (bowing minutes) connected to its finishes, bending the loop more tightly. This phrasing can be befuddling in light of the fact that in a helical torsion spring the strengths following up on the wire are really twisting anxieties, not tensional (shear) stresses.
The resilience of the springs allows their use as a sensing element in a spring balance. Comparison of elongation of the spring under the effect of loads with known and unknown weight makes it easy to determine the unknown weight. Elastic vibrations of the spring If the load is suspended on a spring pull down, and then let go, the sequence of its positions in space describe a curve illustrated in the picture above; Red arrows show the elastic force of the spring, green – weight of the load. If there were no friction, slowing the movement of the spring, she would stretch and shrink forever.
If you are looking to buy torsion spring or any other kind of spring, then you can search for it on net. You can also order custom springs as per your requirement. For that you need to find a reliable seller. You can surely use internet for this purpose as well. We hope that this article was able to provide you some useful information about springs in general and torsion springs in particular. You can find more interesting data about springs by searching on the internet. You can find some amazing images, video and other tutorials relate to springs online. In case you have any queries related to this article, then please feel free to get in touch with us.
Winifred Mullins is a content producer for a line of online content networks (comprising companies like Customspring.ca torsion springs), who shares opinion on a variety of industrial equipment themes and other areas alike. A tireless nomad of digital space and an influential figure in anything of significance to the industrial equipment.
When my husband and I started to seriously consider online marketing as a way to make more money, we knew that we were going to have to learn a good bit even though we both have had marketing experience in the past. There are a lot of similarities between online and offline marketing, but there are quite a few differences too. That is why we wanted to learn as much as we could from Ewen Chia. I know a lot of people might not know who he is, but those of us in the marketing world strive to have the same kind of online success that he has had.
He started in the 1990s, and he has worked extremely hard to get where he is today. That doesn’t mean it is too late for others though, even though he has been doing this for nearly 20 years.
I wanted to invest in a gauge as I own a production shop where the screws and the nuts have to be inspected for acceptance. As it is my own business, I have to be careful about the money I invest in it. These thread gauges are mainly used in the shop for acceptance gauging of threaded parts. These have to be checked properly so that I ended up purchasing the right products. There are different types of gauges which need to be used for the process. On searching online, you will come across many manufacturers and suppliers who offer a wide range of tinkering instruments. To choose the right type, you need to first know which type would suit your requirement.
These manufacturers offer thread ring and plus gauges. These include GO / NOGO, RH/LH (right hand and left hand). The solid ring gauge can be made use of to check the acceptance of a screw which is an externally threaded part. Usually the GO and NO-GO rings are separate pieces. This helps to check the correctness of the thread through depth and pitch diameter. The adjustable ones are also ring shaped which have a split and an adjusting and locking screw feature which helps for fine tuning.
Thread plug gauges can be used to inspect the acceptance of a nut that is an internally threaded part. It will be double ended for small threading parts. One end will carry the GO gauge while the other end will carry the NO-GO. There are usually two separate pieces for larger parts. This type helps to check the accuracy of the pitch diameter.
There are some factors you need to consider while looking for a manufacturer –
- A professional supplier should have a good stock of the gauges that the customers would require. They should be available in varied sizes to meet different customer needs.
- They are very particular about the quality of products they offer. They adhere to strict quality control in the manufacturing process. They ensure to test equipments to provide the best to customers.
- It is always good to look for manufacturers of thread ring gauges who provide customize production services to meet unique customer requirements. They provide plugs or rings as per your specifications. When I wanted to purchase these products, I was not able to find rings as per my requirement. This is when I came across a manufacturer who offered customized production services and ensured to deliver the product I was looking for.
- There may be times when you will need products quickly. For such times, you need to ensure to choose a supplier who offers quick delivery of products on an urgent basis. This does not require you to wait not affecting any of your processes.
- You need to check the customers they have provided services to, to get an idea of their quality and popularity in the industry. A good portfolio directly signifies high quality service.
It is essential that you purchase from a manufacturer that has good customer reviews. This is one thing I searched well on the internet as I knew that if the customers of a company are satisfied, the product will be of good quality.
The PET industry has been serving the needs of a variety of industries for a long time. Today, PET containers are preferred as the most appropriate solution for packaging of a variety of Products. These products include the food items, medicines and other pharmaceutical products, beverages and chemicals. If the packaging of these products is not with good quality, it may lead to degraded quality of the products which is not acceptable as these products are directly associated with the health of the products. In order to provide best safety and hygiene to the products, it is important to make sure that the packaging used for these products is of best quality. It is the responsibility of the manufacturers of PET containers to make user that the containers provided by them to the clients are of best quality and can offer the best safety in the products.
There is a variety of quality testing instruments and QA procedures that must be used in the PET industries for quality assurance of the PET containers. These testing instruments make sure that the PET containers that are provided to the clients are strong enough to survive the excess of pressure exerted on them by the products inside them. Here are some of the testing instruments that are used for quality assurance of the Products in PET industries.
The PET containers are transported in batches of 10 or 12 bottles and are stacked like one upon another. This exerts an enormous amount of pressure and a compressive force on the bottle. This excess of pressure may cause deformation of the Bottles. This deformation may also cause the degradation of the quality of the products that are packaged inside them. In order to ensure the best safety of the products, the bottles are tested for deformation due to compressive forces from the top with the help of a Top load tester. The top load tester helps in determining the maximum amount of compressive load that a PET container or bottle can bear without deformation. The test is commenced in batches of twelve bottles, and then an average of the forces needed for deformation of the bottles is taken. This gives an accurate analysis of the highest amount of force that a bottle can bear during storage or transit without being deformed.
With the help of a top load tester, the manufacturers can make sure that the PET containers they are providing to their clients are sure to provide best safety and hygiene to the products that are packaged using these containers.
- Most modern drug companies were formed in the early 20th centuries; the discoveries of insulin and penicillin lead to a developing industry for manufacture and distribution. Pharmaceutical companies continued to grow and evolve through the 1950s and 1960s, with the development and production of drugs like cortisone, heart medications, chlorpromazine, valium and “the Pill.”
By the 1980s, India had become the primary producer of drugs without patent protection (generics), and pharmaceuticals had moved into drugs for cancer and AIDS. Since the 1990s, the industry has adapted to a changing role by using direct-to-consumer advertising and with the production of SSRIs like Prozac (fluoxetine).
Pharmaceutical Expansion, 1990-2008
- Thanks to the revenues from only several blockbuster drugs (defined as a drug that earns more than $1 billion a year), which accounts for roughly one third of market value for pharmaceuticals, the pharmaceutical industry expanded during the 1990s and into the 2000s.
These best-selling drugs continue to earn a high percentage of total revenue for big pharma. The leading blockbuster drug, Lipitor by Pfizer, brought in more han $12.2 billion in 2007. Plavix by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Sanofi-Aventis; Celebrex by Pfizer; Prilosec and Nexium by AstraZeneca; and Lovenox by Sanofi-Aventis, earned an additional $17 billion combined for their respective companies.
- Big pharma is a game of innovation, research and development and the race to find the next best-selling drug. Since blockbuster drug sales dominate revenues for many firms, pharmaceutical firms must engage in expensive research to try to find new drugs. Since most chemical compounds ultimately do not go on to become blockbusters, finding the next big drug is a costly process. To offset the large up-front costs to pharmaceutical companies, once firms develop a drug that gains FDA approval, the patents on that drug allow the pharmaceutical firm to recover the costs of research and development.
Future of the Industry
- The future of the industry looks guarded. There will be a reduced but still positive growth. IMS Health, a healthcare market research firm, issued a report in April 2009 cutting back the growth forecasts for pharmaceutical sales from 4.5 to 5.5 percent to only 2.5 to 3.5 percent in total sales, down from a prediction of $820 billion to $750 billion). This is largely in response to the economic downturn beginning in 2008, suggests a senior executive at IMS, and the “correlation between demand for medicines and … key economic variables.”
- Several blockbuster drugs are due to expire in the next few years, such as Pfizer’s Lipitor in 2011 and AstraZeneca’s Nexium in 2014, possibly endangering the revenues of the pharmaceutical industry for the next three to five years. IMS predicts that the growth rate for pharmaceutical firms will hover around 3 to 6 percent moving into 2010 to 2012, down from the average rate of about 7 perecent from 2004 to 2007, as a result.
Predictions also suggest that demand for medications might fall in the developed world (especially the United States, by perhaps 1 percent), further reducing revenues for big pharma, although some of this decline will be offset from rising purchases in the developing world, especially Russia, South Korea, Mexico and China.
- Regulations in the pharmaceutical industry began in the early 1900s. The Food and Drugs Act, enacted in 1906, was the first of more than than 200 laws and acts that aimed to protect consumers from drug companies. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, passed in 1934, gave the FDA the right to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 ensured FDA staff would have the resources needed to conduct further regulatory reviews when necessary for new drugs and devices.
Regulatory Guidance Drug Registration and Listing
- The FDA also helps regulate the pharmaceutical industry by making drug companies register all of their products and manufacturing locations. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act states that pharmaceutical drug manufacturers must register their establishment(s), as well as submit a listing with the FDA for every product they plan to distribute commercially. This regulatory system helps the FDA keep track of human and veterinary drugs.
Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications (DDMAC)
- The FDA’s Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications (DDMAC) reviews prescription drug advertising and promotional information to make sure all promotional materials are truthful, balanced and not misleading. Pharmaceutical companies must submit all promotional marketing materials to DDMAC, and DDMAC in turn provides feedback on copy and graphics that can’t be used. DDMAC is also responsible for reviewing complaints about possible promotional violations, and taking action against companies who don’t comply with FDA regulations. Lastly, DDMAC compares the product labeling and promotional materials of similar pharmaceutical products to compare them and ensure that regulatory restrictions are met.
- Occasionally, the FDA will come across a misleading claim about a pharmaceutical product, and it will submit a warning letter to the company who made the claim. The CDER Freedom of Information Office (FOI) controls the warning letter process. Once a warning letter has been submitted to a pharmaceutical company, the company must address the issue, or it will face serious fines and other repercussions.
- Create a business plan. Include the general idea of the pharmaceutical company. Devote additional time detailing where the funding will come from. Since pharmaceutical companies usually need large investments of millions of dollars, the financial projections and estimates should be very detailed and credible. Hire an accountant, a lawyer, and a business professional with experience in pharmaceutical startups. Build the business plan with this team of experts. Include possible distribution channels, promotional plans, an analysis of the competition and break-even analysis. Use the business plan to present the idea to investors and banks to obtain funding.
- Recruit talent. Professional occupations in life sciences and physical science have the highest demand in pharmaceutical companies. They usually work in the applied research area of research and development. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, a substantial part of the research and development budget goes towards this type of research and scientists. To recruit the best talent, you need to offer higher-than-average wages and additional benefits. Study the competition to compare salaries and benefits. If you have a pool of talented and accomplished professionals ready to work for your company, it can help you secure funding to start the company.
- Set up a location for your pharmaceutical company. Once funding for your company has come through, you should construct or rent a building where you can do chemical research, perform administrative operations and have access to transportation lines such as airports or trains. Work with your scientific talent to create a list of supplies and equipment you will need to start. Hire a laboratory manager to handle personnel and day-to-day operations. Hire business professionals to handle financial analysis reports and to manage daily and monthly budgets.
- Apply for and display government and state licenses. You will need building permits, permits related specifically to medical equipment, bio-hazard waste licenses, business permits and high insurance coverage.
- Create a marketing team. Hire a team of professionals preferably with experience in the pharmaceutical industry. Develop a plan to target other companies and health providers along the distribution line. Build relationships with clinics and medical establishments. Send them free information about new drugs or research developments, and create radio, TV, and print commercials for new treatments and medicines.
- Build a competitive advantage by supplying the growing demand for natural health products and alternative medicine.
Soil testing methods vary across the board. Often, the modern testing method is the better. This is because they feature modern technology that traditional tools and approaches lack. Additionally, tests developed at later dates also offer more updated methodologies that are more likely to comply with recent industry standards. Modern portable light weight deflectometers for example, are preferred by engineers and designers, not only because they are new, but because they offer many benefits (both technical and economic) over traditional tools and methods.
However, this is not to say that traditional methods don’t have their merits. Depending on the type of substrates and the extent of area being tested, some testing methods and tools are still more suitable and advantageous than others. For testing pavements, subgrades, and subbases, the light weight deflectometer is definitely a superior choice of tool.
Lightweight deflectometers offer the same accuracy as the larger devices on which their design was based upon—traditional falling weight deflectometers (FWDs). These tools on the other hand, provide the unique benefit of portability because they are a lot more compact than FWDs whose sheer size and weight often delimits the types of soils and the kinds of areas they can test. Light weight deflectometers, unlike huge machines can test a range of different materials, ranging from asphaltic pavements to unbound subbases and subgrades, thinner, more sensitive pavements, and even recycled, foamed bitumen-bound materials.
Other types of soil testing tools and processes require calibration and tedious set-up (such as time-consuming safety tests), which can cause inaccuracies and problematic readings. Light weight deflectometers don’t. In fact, these modern devices streamline the testing process and only require single-person handling so you can get other hands on deck to work on other aspects of the project instead of spending hours on field testing. High quality light weight deflectometers can perform as many as 30 tests within the same period it takes to perform one Benkelman Beam test. Not only do they streamline the testing process, light weight deflectometers also offer superior result accuracy, which remain unaffected by little material changes over the length of the pavement.
In addition to quicker and more convenient testing, light weight deflectometers are also cheaper to run and operate. While initial investment for the machine may be significant, long-term benefits are obvious over other methods like nuclear density testing, CBR tests, and other static plate load bearing tests. light weight deflectometer
Light weight deflectometer devices make it easier to determine the compaction quality and soil bearing capacity of ground materials, pavements, and non-cohesive subbases. They allow for uncomplicated soil testing, providing a huge improvement on tedious traditional testing methods. The principle for light weight deflectometers was first developed as early as 1982 by a German company. Since then, the device’s processes and mechanisms have been continuously optimized.
Thanks to the development of light weight deflectometers and its testing principles, analysis of in-built soil layers are carried out more quickly and without the need for bulky equipment and vehicle. This makes them suitable for testing sites and areas that are difficult to access. LWD machines have varied applications in many areas of civil engineering works. They are useful in road construction, railway and airport runway engineering, and other types of earthworks. They can also be used for quality control and protection of utility trenches and canal construction as well as in the examination and evaluation of foundation fillings and roadbeds.
Light weight deflectometers are suitable for self monitoring as they are designed based on universal standards. They are also easy to handle and provide immediately available results. The modern designs of LWDs feature a sturdy construction with an ergonomic configuration so they can easily be transported and operated by one person. Safety features are also installed to ensure security when the unit is in use or in storage.
The most recent version of load bearing capacity measurement device, LWD is highly useful during the early stages of construction especially when testing subgrade and other materials that are difficult to access using traditional testing methods and measuring equipment. It is also said that LWDs have great potential in supplementing and even replacing some of the now obsolete means to measure soil suitability during pavement design and construction phases. Some of the testing methods and equipment the light weight deflectometer supplements well include the falling weight deflectometer, dynamic cone penetrometer, static plate load testers, and vane test equipment.
The load bearing capacity of pavement surfaces is important to determine during the initial stages of the design process. This helps ensure the suitability of the area in question for the project at hand. While light weight deflectometers are fairly new in the scene, they are showing great promise when it comes to soil quality control for different civil engineering works and processes. TERRATEST GmbH – Light Weight Deflectometer
- Design Assistant is an entry level fashion design opportunity that is more administrative than creative, with duties including assisting the design team with fashion illustration and storyboard layout. Many college graduates start at this level. Typically after six months working as a design assistant the next advancement opportunity is an assistant designer position.
- Assistant designers are similar to design assistants, however the assistant designer gets more hands on production experience with pattern making and assisting with sample garment construction. Typically after spending three or more years as an assistant designer you can advance to an associate designer or technical designer position.
- The associate designer participates in designing garments for the seasonal collections and works closely with the head designer for creative input and design approval. With five or more years experience as an associate designer, you can seek out a position as a head designer.
- According to CareerThreads.com, technical designers are responsible for making sure the fashion designer’s sketch can be made into a wearable garment by overseeing the production side of creating a fashion line. As with the associate designer you will need at least five years experience as a technical designer to advance to head designer.
- The head designer is responsible for the fashion collections produced each season regardless if the collections are failures or successes. Typically a minimum of five years work experience as an associate designer or technical designer is needed to progress to this level; however, it is common for a design firm to require seven to 10 years experience.
- The years of experience you have, job location and employer are the main factors which determine what salary you make at each level. Fashion designing salaries can be lower than $32,150 (entry level positions) according to the BLS or as high as $157,000 or more a year for head designer positions.
There are two major schools of thought regarding investment analysis: technical and fundamental. Technical analysis looks at historical trends in price and volume charts to find clues about the direction of the market in the future. Fundamental analysis looks at the value-based trends in the market and industry in which a company operates.
No matter what company you’re investing in or considering investing in, analyzing key industry trends and external statistics can give you an edge over other investors. One of the most popular frameworks for analyzing key industry trends and external trends is the SWOT Analysis.
- Review the components of a company’s SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats).
- Determine the strengths. Strengths are considered from an internal perspective. Analyze the strengths of the company (or product) in reference to the entire industry. Look to match up company strengths with industry trends. An example is a sole-sourced contract or a hot new product introduction that meets industry trends.
- Analyze the weaknesses of the firm. Weaknesses are those things or events which leave the company weak from an internal perspective. These are specific to the company and may or may not be in line with the industry. An example is poor internal sales numbers or litigation.
- Analyze the opportunities. These are external to the company and deal with how the company is positioned with external trends. An example of an opportunity is tax breaks for the upcoming tax year on products in your industry.
- Analyze threats. These are external risks that pose a problem for the industry as a whole. An example is legislation that limits or regulates industry participants.
- An actuary is a person trained in investment strategies and statistical tools. Actuaries need to know investment strategies in insurance because of the diverse range of products in the insurance field. For example, an actuary may be working with pensions and retirements under a life insurance umbrella. Actuaries are required to pass tough examinations in almost every country to demonstrate they have a sound knowledge of probability and statistics.
- Statistics isn’t an exact science: actuaries look at statistical data and make a best guess at what the data is telling them. In order to prepare for making decisions, actuaries study decision theory, a subset of mathematics and statistics that includes game theory. Game theory helps an actuary to understand what a person is likely to do and why. For example, if an auto insurance policy holder goes into debt, he may be more likely to file a false claim on his vehicle to make money. There are no definite figures for this type of human behavior; the decision to charge a higher premium for certain risks is made by the actuary based on his knowledge base.
- A loss distribution can give an actuary a picture of claim behavior over a certain period or show how categories of claims stack up against each other. For example, an actuary might construct a histogram, a type of bar graph that compares categories. The bar graph might show how claims relate to age groups for life insurance. The actuary will be able to look at trends and see if higher premiums for certain age groups are warranted.
- A linear model can be used to see if one category or item is related to another. An example of a linear model is linear regression: data points are plotted on a graph to see if they have a linear relationship; in other words, can a straight line be used to represent the data. If a straight line can be drawn, this indicates that there is a relationship between the two categories. A linear model can be used to find out information about how age, gender, salary and other characteristics relate to claim size.
Time Series Models
- A time series model is where an actuary looks at how a particular item performs over time. For example, they may look at how policyholders’ claims history changes over time to determine how much to charge for specific policyholder characteristics or they may study the performance of investments over a period of time to determine rates to charge for whole life insurance policies.
- After two decades of aggressive expansion, Japanese automakers produced 12.5 million vehicles in 1992, while American car builders built 11.7 million that same year.
- American and Japanese automakers struggled in the early 2000s to keep up with the demand from India and China to produce cars, while alliances between American, Japanese and Indian builders become common.
- Rising fuel prices in 2007-08 and competition from public transportation dramatically changed customer buying habits, while 51 American assembly plants and more than half a million jobs were projected to be lost by 2010.
- The Ford Motor Company reported a $14.6 billion loss in 2008 but refused government bailout funds, saying that $23 million in commercial loans would carry it through the crisis.
- General Motors received $15.4 billion in government bailout money by February 2009, but cut nearly 8,000 jobs that month.
A research analyst is a trained professional who analyzes information to solve problems, improve decision-making methods and the operations of an organization or workers. Research analysts use engineering and scientific methods like mathematical models and statistics to find answers to questions and recommend a course of action.
Research analysts work in many industries and fields of study, although the term is often used for business research analysts, who provide expert analysis and advice in investment choices for high net-worth people and organizations.
- Research analysts can find employment in the military, and the science, health, transportation, engineering, software development and market analysis industries. These analysts are experts in a field and provide insight into solving problems and improving operations.
- Research analysts need good quantitative and computer skills. A background in advanced mathematics is important for people working in science and statistical jobs. A doctorate or master’s degree is needed, though some entry-level positions require only a bachelor’s degree.
- Research analysts use analytical techniques to break down problems into smaller, basic units, using methods from mathematics, science and engineering. Analysts ask questions, carry out independent research and examine the results in search of a pattern or solution to the problem. Analytical techniques used by research analysts include, among others, data mining, computer modeling and simulations.
- Research analysts are often required to predict outcomes of various scenarios. These scenarios could include anything from the way bacteria reacts to an antibiotic to the behavior of the stock market if the interest rate rises. Well-designed forecasts help managers make better decisions and improve performance.
- Research analysts must understand the theory and principles governing a specific subject or industry. Creative thinking and seeing the big picture of a task or problem are helpful tools.
Subsections of Analysis
- The overall corporate quality of a company can be evaluated by studying the business’s core elements, functions and operations. For example, a company may manufacture products of impeccable quality but have a disreputable customer service history. As such, a total company analysis may be broken down into smaller, related analyses of different aspects of the company. When all the reports from the various analysis are used together, the big picture of the corporation’s health is formed.
- When analysis is conducted internally by a business’s management, the results can help in identifying problems and in remedying a situation. Even if a business seems to be performing well, a company analysis sometimes identifies practices and processes that may be tweaked to enhance performance. When performance is more efficient, its associated costs go down and the profit margins go up. In large companies with completely separated departments, a company analysis may prove that processes currently practiced in one department may work equally well in another department. A timely conducted analysis may also inspire innovation to gain market share.
- When used by external parties, a company analysis answers the questions that an investor may have about the company. Investors may make use of a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat) analysis to better understand the company’s current position in its industry, probable position in the near and long-term future and to make educated decisions about engaging in business with the company. SWOT analysis may be particularly helpful when reviewing businesses operating in markets that are demographically, culturally and economically different.
- Ratio analysis, also known as fundamental analysis, is an evaluation of a company’s financial statements and is an indicator of the company’s past performance and future direction. Analysts may use several different ratios to form a comprehensive picture of the corporation’s financial situation; different groups of ratios aim to evaluate different aspects of a company’s finances, including liquidity, profitability and balance sheet items. Financial ratios may be formed using information for the same company over a number of years for an indication of trend and direction, or using financial data from different companies for a comparison with competitors.
- Well-managed companies tend to conduct an internal company analysis on a regular basis, to keep abreast of changes affecting the business’s performance. Managers may present reports of the analysis to shareholders annually, or to attract business prospects. Companies that tend to conduct routine analysis tend to be more in touch with the different contextual factors affecting the business and are more dynamic and responsive to market forces.
Challengers to Cold Cereal
- Yogurt leads the products that are competing with cereal for consumer dollars spent on breakfast. “Forbes” magazine reports that yogurt occupies 40 percent of the breakfast market, second only to cold cereal. Fast food restaurants offer alternatives to cold cereal, especially as households are expected to have more spending money between 2014 and 2019, says IBISWorld.
The Hot Stuff
- Hot cereals — oatmeal and grits — claim 12 percent of the cereal market. “Forbes” reported a 4 percent sales increase in this hot zone in fiscal year 2013, and market researcher Mintel reports that sales rose 7 percent from 2011 to 2013. According to “Forbes,” these products attract working mothers who need quick breakfasts. Consumers have also turned to cereal bars to fit eating into their full itineraries. In 2011, 35 percent of the cereal market consisted of cereal bars.
- Consumers are trending away from sugar- and carbohydrate-dominated cereals to products with more fiber and whole grains. According to a USDA study, cereal makers between 2005 and 2011 were diminishing the sugar, carbohydrate and sodium content of their products and increasing fiber content. Low-fat yogurt appeals to consumers who want to avoid being among the one-third of Americans who are obese.
Children at the Core
- Declining birth rates could translate to fewer children, who form the nucleus of the cold cereal market. Latino consumers may fill the gap, says a 2014 report from Packaged Facts. This division of Market Research LLC predicts growth in the population of Latinos under age 14 and reports that a quarter of children and youth under 14 in Texas and California are Latino. Further, 39 percent of Latino households with members under age 21 ate cold cereal, versus 33 percent of non-Latino households.
Plastazote is a versatile man-made polyethylene foam which is produced as a byproduct of oil. Plastazote is a vast number of nitrogen cells held in a mass of polyethylene. In contrast to other foams, it is tough and flexible, defined by the regular shapes, sides and walls of the cells made from polyethylene. This shows the material is so light and liquids cannot pass through it and be absorbed.
If the Plastazote is squashed and compressed, each cell acts like a balloon and the foam bounces back to its original shape. Plastazote is lightweight, non-toxic, odourless, non absorbent and It can be washed, disinfected and wiped clean which has excellent chemical resistance to most oils. Plastazote in india very commonly used as it have weather proof propreties and has good ultraviolet stability and it is durable, tough and flexible that recovers repeatedly from impacts.
It is a highly energy absorbent material and is a very good thermal insulator. They are the only products of their type which are expanded using pure nitrogen gas. This results in pure chemically inert foams having an excellent physical properties. Plastazote made using solid chemical blowing agent systems always contain a significant amount of blowing agent chemical residues which can detract from the physical, chemical and biological properties of the foamed polymer. Foams manufactured using volatile liquids can suffer from dimensional changes. Can be easily shaped, cut and bonded to other materials.
In everyday activities like in swimming pools for floats and buoyancy aids, as waterslide mats, surfboards, pool toys, sleeping mats, gym and exercise mats and like many other activies plastazotes in India as well as all over the world it is used. It is used as body protection for various sports and shoe insoles and helmet liners. It has important uses in health care as supports, orthopedic shoes, surgical splints and collars, as well as mobility equipment for the disabled.
Theatres and film sets around the world use it to make stage props and set designs, costumes, masks and hats. Other applications are for sound and pipe insulation, gaskets, anti-vibration pads. Now a days Plastazote in India is commonly used because of having application include packaging, display, protective, automotive, health care and construction. The inert qualities of Plastazote have its widespread worldwide use in healthcare applications. It is a highly energy absorbent material and is a very good thermal insulator. Some other Applications of Plastazote includes Storage and packing of fragile items, Box making, Backing and support panels, Drawer and box liners, Customized packaging, Picture framing etc.
In concurrent times the medical industry had gone truly global and thus truly dynamic. The geographical distance between the manufacturer and the consumers had faded away. Also, the general public holds greater awareness of the aspects of the medicines. It is inevitable that the medicines need to come in the perfect quality standing to make any worth. Since the medicines are handled in bulk volumes, the quality of the packaging matters a lot and in this regards as the medicines are prone to get attacked by the moistures accumulating inside the packages, there needs to be solved that would eradicates these threats.
Humidity, moisture and vapors- Biggest threats to the medical industry
The best of the solution that can be lent to these situations lies with the desiccants that are Moisture Absorbing Products. These products come in various specification and forms and it acts like a drying agent that absorbs the moisture that accumulates inside the packages. To keep the medicines safe and in perfect state, it needs to be protected from these instances and the threats arising from fungal effects and water vapors too. The Moisture Absorbing Products serve this concern as it absorbs those moistures and vapors thereby keeping the medicines safer for usages.
Clay Desiccant- Minimizes the threats
Out of the varied forms of desiccants, the Clay Desiccant Packets are the ones that find the maximum of usages in the medical industry. As these materials are made of natural minerals, these products are better environmental-friendly. Among the category of the desiccants, the clay type holds the highest capacity to absorb the moistures, gasses and the water vapors, across the normal to varied range of temperature. These packets are non-dusting, non-leaking, and non-corrosive and neither has it displayed any toxic nature. Thus these forms of desiccants are perfectly suited for usage on medical domains. The Clay Desiccant Packets involve the Tyvek materials in its making and it comply with the specifications as set by the FDA.
The holistic advantages of these products
It is possible to regenerate the clay desiccants easily at lower scales of temperature and it possesses recyclable capacities. The user simply needs to select the right specification that best-fits to these requirements and after that these product function at the optimum level to safeguard the medicines for longer stretches of time. These products had been helping the manufacturers to prevent the wastage of medicines, thereby keeping the price of medicines within the reaches of the mass.
More Than Just Burgers
- Many different types of fast food establishments exist, each one with a niche in the marketplace. These restaurants cater to the public’s desire for different types of food. The most common type of fast food restaurants serve beef burgers and french fries. Other establishments serve only fish, chicken or similarly popular meals. Still, other niche restaurants cater to those who want only one type of food in varying degrees of presentation.
Avoiding Stiff Competition
- The proximity of one fast food restaurant to others may have an effect on its success. If another establishment that serves identical meals is within a close range, the result will be increased competition and potentially lower gross sales. A restaurant that is near a similar one must attempt to draw customers from the competition with promises of additional benefits, features and lower prices. Obviously the highest chances of success exist when there are no other fast food restaurants close by.
Attracting a Large Customer Base, Literally
- A fast food restaurant’s size may have significant effect on its success. Larger buildings can serve more customers at one time. Providing customers with appropriate seating in a comfortable environment increases the likelihood that they will stay for longer periods during meals, thereby increasing the chances that additional products, like desserts, may be purchased. Additionally, larger buildings allow for a more significant surface area for outdoor advertising. Signs, banners and other creative marketing methods can be applied to the exterior of the building, resulting in dramatically higher exposure to passersby.
Location, Location, Location
- Demographics may be the most significant factors affecting the success of a fast food restaurant. Restaurant owners should examine the ratios of male to female, average income, education levels and other essential characteristics of the people living nearby. Advertising and marketing can be tailored to take advantage of the demographics information. Demographic information can be effectively used in drawing the local residents to the fast food restaurant.
What’s In a Name
- Something to consider is that many fast food restaurants may have certain measures for success based simply on their major trademarked names. Think McDonald’s, Burger King and Wendy’s and their quality management that lends itself to their financial success. Those establishments that are the nation’s leading fast food chains have a chance at attracting a number of customers merely because of familiarity and convenience. Predictability concerning products and prices often appeals to a large number of people.
- Brand-name suppliers tend to have more bargaining power. For example, McDonald’s has contracts with Newman’s Own and Coca-Cola and uses these brand names to attract brand-loyal customers. These suppliers have more bargaining power, because if they stop supplying restaurants, the restaurants may lose money or be forced to change their marketing strategies.
Availability of Other Suppliers
- In a market saturated with suppliers of the same or similar products, an individual supplier’s bargaining power diminishes. Restaurants can simply switch to another supplier offering the same product. This means that the suppliers may have to meet more of the buyers’ demands, and buyers can put pressure on suppliers to reduce costs, offer better products, reduce delivery times or provide higher volume.
Cost and Quality Issues
- A supplier that offers a product at a significantly reduced price compared to other suppliers has more bargaining power, even in a saturated market. Similarly, if one supplier offers a superior product, better efficiency or rapid delivery times, this supplier’s bargaining power will be higher than other suppliers in the industry. Fast-food restaurants operate on high volume, so rapid replacement of supplies at a low cost can save restaurants time, money and hassle. If a supplier provides the cheapest, most efficient or highest quality items, it has more bargaining power.
Portion of Supplier’s Business
- A supplier’s willingness to bargain — and risk losing a client — is partially based upon the supplier’s budget, as well as how much of its business comes from a specific fast-food restaurant. A supplier with a thriving, diversified client base has more bargaining power than a supplier who relies solely on one or two restaurants.
- Political agendas, social influences and local economy are environmental factors that are included in a market analysis. These make up a subdivision of external issues, or macro-environmental factors. Micro-environmental factors deal with an organization’s internal position. Examples of micro-environmental factors include the number of employees, department structure, supplies, competencies and budget. Any force that can impact the company is considered an environmental factor. The key to covering this dimension of market analysis is to ask: 1. Who drives the organization? 2. Who or what can benefit the organization? 3. Who or what can hurt the business?
- Businesses must evaluate competitors in their industry. Competitors are defined as companies that can produce a similar service or product and serve the same customers. This dimension of market analysis includes noting similarities and differences in key competitors’ strengths. These strengths could be defined in terms of product cost, operational efficiency, brand recognition, or market penetration. Including a competitive analysis supports the case for new opportunities to gain customers and revenue.
Target Audience Analysis
- Each business targets a group of people who are most likely to purchase their product. Identifying this group based on location, age, gender, income, ethnicity, activities, beliefs and behaviors is part of the target audience analysis. In this dimension of market analysis, people who use the product or influence the purchase decision are included in the target audience. For example, a car dealership may target women 35 to 45 years old as those more likely to drive minivans, although their husbands may ultimately make a purchase. If the car dealership includes women as an influence on car purchase decisions, they may discover creative programs and advertisements that persuade women. In addition, target audience analysis may include more than one group or segment.
- SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This portion of market analysis establishes a direction based on key issues being addressed. The SWOT analysis examines the internal strengths and weaknesses against the external opportunities and threats. This analysis is a more detailed perspective concerning the business objective, with reference to other dimensions of market analysis.
- Loaning money responsibly and prudently is one of a bank’s foremost endeavors. Successful loan money based on established criteria and will only waver when extraordinary circumstances warrant making an exception.As with every banking function, the bank is using other people’s money and must be perform with prudence and skepticism whenever considering lending for whatever reason. Customers with established track records and long-standing relations with the bank may be able to circumvent lending processes to some degree but this only comes after years of successful banking transactions.Banks must also be prudent in regards to deposits. Paying dividends on savings or checking must be a carefully balanced business decision. Payments must be kept competitive to keep a depositor’s business but extravagance can lead to diminished bank profits. Successful banks always find the right balance.
- Banking is a business and as such must always search for new customers and expand market share. A successful bank will market services, convenience and financial advantages. Banks resting on decades-old laurels will see an aging customer base not invigorated with new customers and more importantly new money.Bank marketing efforts is regulated by federal and state agencies and monitors just what a bank can and cannot say. A successful bank, however, will work within those regulations to see deposits, reputable lending and market share constantly increase.
- Banking practices are industry standards such as how the bank handles cash, deposits, withdrawals, payments and financial records. The successful bank will always have statements accurate to the penny and on schedule. Although no bank is perfect, the successful bank has a reputation for fewer mistakes and satisfied customers. Vigilant management, conscientious employees and always improving in areas of technology and customer service keeps successful banks in the lead.
- Identify the industry. Determine the code that corresponds to your industry by going to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) website under “Resources.” For example, if you are looking for information about corn farmers, the NAICS code would fall under the “Agriculture, fishing, forestry and hunting” section, and the code specific to corn farmers would be 111150.
- Get an overview of the industry. Look up trade associations online for your industry or find the “Encyclopedia of American Industries” in your local library. Your local library should also have other resources such as “Standard and Poor’s Industry Surveys” or the “US Industry and Trade Outlook.” These sources should help you determine the size of the industry in dollars, the history, leading companies, government regulations related to the industry and whether the industry is seasonal.
- Determine industry trends. Look up websites related to your industry on compete.com and compare their online traffic data. This will give you a general sense of which companies are leading the industry and what kinds of growth patterns they might experience in the future. Use a search-based keyword tool such as Google’s keyword tool to see how many people are searching for words related to your industry.
- Look up consumer data. Go to the Bureau of the Census website to find industry data related to consumers in different geographical regions in the United States. Include demographics such as age, income, sex, race, ethnicity and family status for your industry. For psycho-graphic information such as buying habits, taste and lifestyle patterns, go to Nielsen’s Clarita site under “Resources.”
- Identify the competition. You can look up information about all publicly traded companies by checking with the Securities and Exchange Commission website. Looking at the search results for the products in your industry will tell you who the online competition is. Any company that fulfills the needs of the consumers of your industry is a competitor.
- Write down all of the strengths that currently exist for the industry you are analyzing. A strength is anything that is beneficial about the industry. An example of a strength would be the potential for long-term growth. Don’t focus on your company, focus on the industry you are analyzing.
- Write down a list of all the industry’s weaknesses. For example, a weakness might be that the industry is highly competitive or volatile. Consider anything that would be disadvantageous about entering this industry.
- Write down a list of all the opportunities in the industry. For example, are there many untapped markets for the industry or opportunities for technological breakthroughs? List any opportunities in the industry that may be exploited in the future.
- Write down a list of all the threats to the industry. For example, a threat to the oil industry could be environmental legislation, or a threat to the television industry could be Internet entertainment programming. A threat is anything that has the potential to disrupt or damage an industry.
- Analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats you have just laid out. What you want to determine is if the strengths and opportunities are greater than the weaknesses and threats. This is a difficult process. You should consider the number in each category, but you should try to understand the impact of each category overall.
- Begin with an overview of the industry. Provide statistics and historical data about the nature of the industry and growth potential for your business based on economic factors and conditions. This section should not be longer than eight lines.
- List the major competitors in your industry with a brief summary of their operations and similar products or services. This section can be broken down into sections, with three to four lines per business.
- Summarize the nature of the industry. Include specific information and statistics about growth patterns, fluctuations related to the economy and income projections made about the industry.
- Provide a forecast for your industry. Compile economist data and industry predictions for the next five, 10 and 20 years. This may include graphs of statistical data to better convey the message.
- Identify government regulations that affect the industry. Include any recent laws pertaining to your industry and any licenses or authorization you would need to conduct business in your target market. This section may include information about fees and costs involved.
- Explain your company’s position within the industry. Include information from your Competitive Analysis and Unique Selling Proposition as well as data for direct and indirect competition. This section can be as long as one-quarter page and may be supported by graphs, charts and tables.
- List potential stumbling blocks. Write a brief paragraph about factors that might negatively impact your business and what you foresee in the short-term and long-term future.
- As technology becomes more and more integrated into our life and society, more and more competent workers are needed. Whether it’s programming, entering data for website or databases or working in a factory, more and more high-tech are jobs available every year, encouraging workers to refocus their abilities. Continuing-education classes to learn new technological skills may be necessary for some.
- U.S. agriculture is an enormous industry, producing much of the nation’s food and fiber, ranging from processed foods to the booming organic food market. Jobs available in this sector range from building the tractors and machines that farmers use to the science and chemistry of what makes crops grow to being a farmer. Varying degrees of formal education are required.
- An industry that first truly boomed in the United States, entertainment always has job openings for creative and business-minded people in a wide range of capacities. From lawyers to artists to teamsters, the entertainment business employs just about every skill set to bring imagination and stories to television, the movies and now even cell phones. While the hubs of the entertainment industry are Los Angeles and New York City, the technological revolution has made creating your own entertainment easier than ever, allowing those with the necessary skills to work from just about anywhere.
- Arc-welding robots are common in steel production and automobile manufacturing plants. While human operators most often do the preparatory work, robots handle the parts and perform the weld. In addition to improving weld consistency, decreasing cycle times and enhancing production efficiency, welding robots have distinct health and safety advantages. Welding, which involves applying intense heat to connect two pieces of metal, exposes human workers to hazardous fumes and risks of arc burns. Replacing human workers with welding robots eliminates these risks.
- Assembly robots are especially common in industries that use lean manufacturing processes. According to the ABB Group, a global power and technology company, an automated assembly line supports lean manufacturing businesses ranging from food processors to automotive manufacturing plants in a number of ways. Robots reduce waste, and decrease both wait and changeover time as they increase accuracy, consistency and assembly line speed. In addition, robots save human operators from tedious assembly line jobs.
Picking and Packing
- The faster and more efficiently you can pick and pack products as they come off the assembly line, the better. However, picking and packing jobs require dexterity, consistency and flexibility, which over time can not only tax the health and safety of human workers but also decrease efficiency and speed. Picking and packing robots ensure consistent throughput, a measure of productivity within a given amount of time, which is why picking and packing robots are common in manufacturing industries.
- Although welding, assembly, and picking and packing robots are the most common types of industrial robots, some industries use robots to perform other tasks. For example, electronics and optical industries that are sensitive about contamination often use clean-room robots that perform tasks in isolated, sealed and insulated environments. Aerospace, automotive, electronics, food and textile industries use water-jet robots to cut, drill and clean a variety of materials. Milling, drilling and cutting robots are common in CNC industries, such as tooling and prototype development.
- Process technicians are essential human resources in organizations such as refineries, power generation firms, oil and gas production companies, food processing plants and biotechnology firms. Since almost all manufacturing industries require process technicians, this suggests that there are plenty of jobs requiring a process technology degree. And as far as job security, according to the North Carolina Biotechnology Center, “Qualified process technicians are integral to the success of many biotechnology employers. It can take several years to train someone on all phases of a complex manufacturing process, so employers are highly motivated to retain their experienced process technicians with competitive salaries, excellent benefits, and opportunities for advancement.”
Operations Technician in Metal and Steel Industry
- If you’re looking for a job in the metal and metallurgy industry, then you need to have an AAS degree before you get onto the factory floor. This degree will equip you with the knowledge and skills required for handling electronics, computer applications, process parts and inductors. It will also give you experience that matters when you’re dealing with industrial safety and electricity restrictions. Being an operations technician with an AAS degree will also open many doors for your advancement through to line management.
Process Technician in Biotechnology and Bioprocess Technology
- One of the best paying jobs with a process technology degree, a biotechnology process technician is an essential cog in the biotechnology industry wheel, so to speak. If you’re interested in joining this industry, then you need to complete a process technology AAS degree and join up with a pharmaceutical, chemical or research firm. Here, along with your skill set and education, you’ll need to have a sense of caution, because dealing with drugs and chemicals is never easy, especially when large-scale food or drug manufacturing is involved.
Operations Technician in Oil and Gas Industry
- Refineries, petrochemical firms and oil and natural gas organizations are all organizations that rely heavily on process and operations technicians. If you’re wondering about how you’ll get an exciting and challenging process technology job, then don’t worry. These industries are always on the hunt for process technicians who are smart, able and capable of making quick decisions. Jobs in this industry tend to pay a lot.
- Prior to assembling any piece of equipment, fabricators must read and fully comprehend assembly instructions, such as blueprints and sketches. They must then go over the list of parts to be assembled, ensuring that each is accounted for. Based on specifications, fabricators assemble the equipment, taking measurements, repositioning parts and making sure each part is properly fitted and secured. In addition to assembling the equipment, fabricators identify any errors or malfunctions. When such inefficiencies are identified, fabricators make repairs and troubleshoot to the best of their ability. This may require the use of additional tools as well as ordering replacement parts and other supplies.
- A high school diploma or its equivalent is typically the minimum education required to obtain employment as a fabricator. Although most fabricators learn the ropes while on the job, some companies sponsor training programs for those new to the profession. Some larger organizations, such as aircraft manufacturers and consumer product companies, require applications to possess an associate’s degree in order to be considered for employment.
- Although novice fabricators acquire many of their skills by jumping into the profession, certain attributes are prerequisites in order to be successful in the role. Fabricators must possess physical strength and have a lot of stamina, as lifting heavy objects and standing for long periods of time are the norm on the job. These workers also must possess exceptional hand-eye coordination to precisely manipulate small objects. In addition, many of the objects fabricators work with are often color coded, precluding colorblind candidates from the occupation.
- Fabricators seeking career development and networking opportunities may find a professional haven with the Fabricators & Manufacturers Association International. Founded in 1970, the organization, according to its mission, aims to bring its members “together through technology councils, educational programs” and networking events. MFA also produces FABTECH, the largest conference dedicated to the industry, and publishes various publications geared toward specific sectors within the fabricating and manufacturing industries.
Job Outlook and Salary
- According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of fabricators is expected to grow at a rate of only 4 percent between 2012 and 2022, a slower pace than other professions, as a result of increasing manufacturing process efficiencies that require fewer workers. The average salary paid to those in this profession in 2012 was $28,580.
Learning the Job
- Steel erectors usually need a minimum of a high school diploma and a broad understanding of mechanics, design and engineering. Most complete three or four years of an apprenticeship to learn the tricks of the trade. Eligibility differs by the organization, but apprenticeships generally require candidates to be physically able to handle the work, to be a minimum of 18 years old and to pass a substance abuse screening. Steel erectors can’t be afraid of heights, and they must have excellent depth perception, balance and physical strength.
Covering the Details
- For each new project, steel erectors collaborate with their team to create construction and safety plans, evaluate location-specific hazards, review drawings in detail and determine procedures for welding and crane logistics. Steel erectors cut various materials for installation and weld or use bolts to connect beams, girders and columns to other structural pieces. Depending on the specifications of the project, they may install wires, ladders, gauges, flanges, valves, sealing strips or insulated materials.
Safety and Stability
- Steel erectors are often responsible for putting together and breaking down temporary shelters and similar equipment that’s used during the construction process. They also prepare support and safety equipment around work sites. According to the Occupational Safety & Health Administration, steel erectors are constantly on narrow working surfaces that are several levels above the ground. OSHA notes that many erectors start working at the top of the structure, where anchor points higher than foot level tend to be unavailable or limited.
Advancement and Employment
- According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, most steel erectors get certified by the American Welding Society. (See Reference 1: How to Become One tab; Licenses, Certifications and Registrations) It reports that those with certification in crane signaling, rigging and welding may receive higher pay than workers without credentials. (See Reference 1: How to Become One tab; Licenses, Certifications and Registrations) The BLS classifies steel erectors under the broader category of structural iron and steel workers, who earned an average annual income of $51,590, as of May 2013. (see Reference 6) It reports that employment opportunities are expected to increase 22 percent between 2012 and 2022, which is must faster than the average of all occupations at 11 percent. (See Reference 1: Job Outlook tab; paragraph 1)
- Steel mills employ workers with a variety of skill sets. These jobs can include managers, engineers, sales representatives, administrative support personnel, maintenance workers and a range of specialized laborers such as welders, machine setters, electricians and equipment operators.
- Responsibilities of steel mill workers depend on the position and vary widely. Management, sales, administrative staff and some engineering staff handle the financial, strategic and more general operational aspects of the steel mill. Machinists, electricians and other factory workers handle most directly the processing, testing and delivery of the steel product.
- Requirements for steel mill jobs vary widely based on organization, department and type of job. Management, engineering, administrative and other skilled positions require the education and training standard to those fields, and preference is given to candidates with experience in heavy industry. Some jobs may require little or no prior industry experience.
- Because of foreign competition and productivity improvements, employment in the steel manufacturing industry is expected to decrease 13 percent from 2008 to 2018.
- Compensation for steel mill jobs varies widely based on company, location, experience and type of job. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average 2008 hourly wage for production supervisors was $28.32, while the average for machine setters, operators and tenders was $15.97.
It goes without saying that the pouches are in huge demand in the food industry. Large numbers of food products need to be manufactured in pouches. Milk, for instance, is one of the most important products that need to be packed in pouches. A milk pouch packing machine is certainly of great help in this context. The machinery is designed in such a way so that it makes use of special sealing capacity to tighten the pouch. In addition to that, the manufacturing is carried out in such a way so that the pouch remains air tight and enhances the overall longevity of the milk.
Growth of the Packaging Industry:
The packaging industry is growing at a steady rate in the recent years. Manufacturers of liquid and powdered products look for some of the highest qualities of machines to produce pouches. After all, it requires extreme care and caution to export the milk and other liquid products across the world. For most milk manufacturers and exporters, the packaging solution certainly matters a lot. In this context, the importance of an appropriate and high quality milk pouch packing machine cannot be overlooked at any cost. It definitely helps in serving a great purpose, as a whole.
In the recent years, most machines are automated. As a result, a product specification can easily be entered while manufacturing these pouches. The weight, size and capacity can be pre-specified prior to the manufacturing process. On the basis of that, it can customize a product as per the requirements. These machines are also designed for accuracy, speed and quality. Consequently, it results in freshness and longevity of the milk filled in the pouches. In fact, these pouches also help in retaining the mineral content of the pouch.
Multiple Pouch Formats:
With the sophistication of technology, it will not be difficult for you to find out the best machines for pouches. Moreover, you will even find a milk packaging machine that can manufacture multiple pouch formats. Therefore, it will not be difficult for you to find one that best suits your needs. The innovative packing solutions are tamper-resistant, leak-proof and non-resistant to chemicals. Apart from pouches, you can also get in strips, tubes or boxes. It is up to you to decide how you want to pack the milk and on the basis of that you can make your selection.
Quality Is Crucial:
It is a well-known fact that quality is often the major factor that helps in determining the ideal packing solution. Moreover, the milk packaging machine should also adhere to the latest industrial standards in manufacturing pouches or other types of packaging solutions. This in turn also results in sturdy packaging that tends to be attractive, as a whole. The products contained in the pouch can help in maintaining a strong shelf life and attract the attention of customers. Moreover, the pouch formats used should be unique and innovative and maintain the freshness of the products in great ways.
- Blast furnaces account for up to 40 percent of the total amount of oxygen used in a typical integrated steel mill. Oxygen is injected into these furnaces through spargers–devices used to spray gas into a system–to enrich the air. This process increases the productivity of the furnace. It also serves to lower coke consumption by facilitating the addition of powdered coal and natural gas to the furnace. Using oxygen in a blast furnace lowers the overall cost of production.
Basic Oxygen Furnaces
- In basic oxygen furnaces, oxygen is used for decarburization–the process of decreasing the level of carbon in metals–and the conversion of hot metal formed in a blast furnace to liquid steel. This process typically accounts for about half the amount of oxygen used in an integrated steel mill. When oxygen reacts with silicon and carbon, it produces a large amount of heat. This heat is enough to melt scrap metal in large quantities.
Electric Arc Furnaces
- Electric arc furnaces have three primary uses for oxygen. Oxygen is used to run oxy-fuel burners used for heating and melting scrap metal. Oxygen is used in high-velocity lancing. High-velocity lancing is used in localized scrap melting processes, decarburization of steel and slag foaming. Oxygen is used in sub-sonic injection processes used for post combustion of carbon dioxide.
- Rotary furnaces used to depend on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxides to heat metal. They have since switched to pure oxygen. Using pure oxygen allows for the avoidance of heat loss, thereby reducing the amount of time the furnace needs to complete tasks as well as its overall costs.
Steel Reheating, Cutting and Burning
- Oxygen is used in steel reheating furnaces. In particular, oxygen is used for enrichment or two run oxy-burners, as blast furnaces and rotary furnaces, respectively. Using oxy-fuel burners in this process contributes to reduced fuel consumption when compared to other gases. High-purity oxygen is used in cutting and burning processes to run automatic cutoff torches, as well as in the cutting of crops and other forms of mill scrap.
- Remove the old tub from the bathroom. Use the screwdriver to help remove faucets and the overflow shroud. Use the utility knife to cut away old silicone. The drain wrench is used to remove the old drain. You will probably have to remove all or part of the wall above the tub, as the wall covers the flange on the tub.
- Inspect the ledger boards that the rim of the tub sits on. If these boards look water-damaged or are showing signs of rot, replace them. The ledger boards help to support the tub when it is full of water.
- Inspect the p-trap that the drain attaches to. If it looks like it is in good shape and not showing signs of degradation, then it can be reused. If it does not look good, replace it at this point. Be sure to replace it with another p-trap, otherwise sewer gasses will continually invade your bathroom.
- Install the new tub, taking care not to damage the porcelain finish. Check for level, both back to front and left to right. Use the plastic shims as needed. Once the tub is level, attach it to the wall studs with the stainless steel screws.
- Install the drain and overflow assembly, according to manufacturer’s directions. Use the drain wrench to install the new drain, taking care not to over tighten the drain, as this could damage the tub.
- Install the new walls. How this is done depends on the type of wall surface chosen. Once the walls are finished, you can install the new faucet and spout.
- A steel plate is a broad and generic term for steel in the form of a plate. However, steel can be combined with other metals to form alloys, which can make them corrosion resistant, stronger or lighter. In addition to what alloy of steel plate is made, the thickness can range from 3/16 inch to several inches. For example, a pressure vessel application of a steel plate may only require 3/4 inch thickness, while military grade anti-armor ammunition testing may require it to be as thick as possible.
- The construction industry requires many types of steel in all sizes. Steel plates can be found in buildings, bridges and on construction vehicles. The company, K.K.L. Metal Trading, makes structural steel plates for use in sports stadiums, airports, pre-fabricated buildings, warehouses, railway stations and vehicles.
Pressure Vessel Plate
- Pressure vessel plate is a type of steel plate used for storage containers. These storage containers can be boilers, gas tanks, or any unit that stores compressed gas or fluid. They can be manufactured to hold contents at outdoor temperatures or hold contents are more extreme temperatures. Depending on the purpose, these steel plates can be course-grain or fine-grain.
- Steel plates are also used extensively in the shipbuilding industry. The plates are used for ships and barges or oil rigs and other offshore equipment. They may be manufactured structural parts or they may be implemented as repair pieces. Sometimes extremely durable steel plates are needed, especially in the construction of large offshore facilities.
- The Department of Defense often requires higher-grade steel plates for use in military vehicles and buildings. Steel industries with military contracts manufacture steel according to the purposes and standards set by the Department of Defense and its other departments such as the Army, Air Force and Navy. Military steel plates are used in tanks, jeeps, trucks and ground vehicles, as well as helicopters, jets and other aircraft. The Navy uses this steel for shipbuilding and naval repair.
- The American Iron and Steel Institute standard states that 1026 steel must have a carbon content of between .22 and .28 percent, a manganese content of between .60 and .90 percent, a phosphorus content less than .04 percent and a sulfur content less than .05 percent.
- AISI 1026 has a simple chemical structure and is easy to weld using most modern welding processes such as MIG and TIG welding. Because of this, 1026 sometimes sees use as general shop steel for various fabrication products. The bar form of 1026 sees use as a structural material, and 1026 bar stock is often used to build frames or as a base material. Round stock 1026 serves to anchors items in the ground. Bird feeder hangers and garden hooks are often made from 1026 and other mild steels.
- AISI 1026 steel sees use in the production of tubing of various sizes. A coating of oil after production reduces the chances of rust forming. Galvanization will also prevent rust. AISI 1026 tubing serves as a structural material and for short-term plumbing. However, since it is susceptible to corrosion, 1026 tubing is never a long-term plumbing solution.
Parts and Fasteners
- AISI 1026 is easily shaped in its cold state using lathes, mills and other tools. Because of these properties, the automotive and construction industries use1026 to produce various steel parts ranging from bolts and fasteners to automobile exhausts. However, since it does not respond to heat treatment because of a lack of carbon, 1026 has some limitations. Items made from 1026 will remain relatively soft. This means 1026 is not suitable to make parts that undergo high levels of stress or require sharpening. The steel bends easily and does not hold an edge.
- Hardened steel is resistant to wear, rough usage, high-impact pressure and shock. It is used to make power shovels, steel balls, nozzles, surgical instruments, crushers and plates for rock-processing. Steel with a sufficient amount of chromium that undergoes heat treatment hardens to form chromium carbide particles, which increase the wear resistance of the steel alloy. Hardened steels with a greater concentration of carbon contain a higher amount of chromium carbide and exhibit enhanced wear-resistance properties.
- According to “Surface Engineering for Corrosion and Wear Resistance,” corrosion costs the U.S. billions of dollars annually by affecting materials and metallic surfaces used in industries. Hardened steel is resistant to corrosive chemical environments, potable water and atmospheric corrosion. Hardened steel is applied with corrosion-resistant coating to further enhance its resistive properties.
- Hardened steel offers exceptional resistance to severe sliding abrasion and is able to withstand drilling and punching. Its abrasion-resistant properties enable hardened steel to be used in aggregates quarries and hard-rock mining, and to make conveyors, chutes, highway truck beds, crushers, hoppers and troughs.
- According to “Steel Heat Treatment: Equipment and Process Design,” the durability of heat-treated hardened steel is at least twice that of untreated and oil-treated steel. Hardened steel is used to make knives, the optimal hardness of which depends upon the proportions of carbon, manganese and chromium. Examples of hardened steels used in knife-making include the 154 CM (chromium 14 percent, manganese 0.5 percent and carbon 1.05 percent); 420HC (chromium 13.5 percent, manganese 0.35 to 0.9 percent and carbon 0.5 to 0.7 percent); and ATS34 (chromium 14 percent, manganese 0.4 percent and carbon 1.05 percent). Knives made from these hard steels last longer than those made from regular soft to medium steels.
Installing Steel Frames in Drywall
- Choose the correct frame. Use knock down steel frames for installation in drywall partitions. These frames come in three separate sections so they can be installed after the drywall is finished. The jamb size on your frame should be 1 inch larger than the thickness of the wall around the opening. For instance, steel frames in 4-7/8-inch walls should have a jamb depth of 5-7/8 inches.
- Angle one jamb of the frame so that you can fit it into the opening. Starting at the bottom, press the frame firmly against the wall so that it slips around the edge of the opening. You may need to use a rubber mallet to tap the jamb in place.
- Connect the header. Fasten the tabs or clips at the top of the installed jamb to the corresponding clips on the header. Wrap the header around the top of the opening.
- Install the remaining jamb by fastening it to the clips at the end of the header. Work your way down the wall, pressing the jamb into place so it wraps the drywall partition.
- Tighten the compression anchors on the frame using an Allen wrench. These anchors should firmly hold the frame to the drywall but should not be over-tightened. When these anchors are too tight, they can warp the frame or damage the drywall.
Installing Steel Frames in Masonry
- Select the right frame for the job. In a masonry wall, steel frames should have a jamb depth equal to the wall thickness. This allows the frame to butt up against the masonry rather than wrapping around the walls. A steel frame installed in a 6-inch block wall will require a 5-3/4 inch jamb depth. This is because a 6-inch block wall will actually measure 5-3/4 inches, which is standard practice with masonry materials.
- Install the frame before the masonry work begins. Layout the floor and determine the location of the door. Set the frame at this location and fasten it to the floor using concrete anchors or screws, depending on what the subfloor is made of.
- Brace the frame using 2-by-4s or a door jack system designed to support a steel frame. This bracing is used to hold the frame in place as masonry is installed on either side. Add spreader bars to support the jambs until the door can be installed.
- Use wire anchors to hold the frame in place. These anchors are welded into the steel frame at each hinge location. As masonry is erected, the wire anchors are embedded into the mortar between the rows of block. Once masonry work is complete, the spreader bars and bracing can be removed from the frame.
Installing the Steel Door
- Size your steel door correctly. Your door should be 1/8 inch smaller than the frame in width, and 3/8 to 3/4 of an inch shorter than the frame depending on the height of the threshold or flooring.
- Consider hardware preps. Steel doors and frames are pre-cut at the factory to prepare them for hinges and locks. The hinge and lock preps should match the locations on the frame, but will be 1/8 inch higher on the door than on the frame. For example, if the top of the uppermost hinge on your frame is 6 inches from the top of the frame, this same hinge will be 5-7/8 inches from the top of the door. This allows a 1/8 inch clearance at the top of the door so it will not bind with the frame.
- Install the door. Screw the hinges to the door, then have a partner hold the door in place while your fasten it to the frame. Add shims behind the hinges as needed to level it out and help the door swing properly in the opening.
- Install your chosen lockset according to the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Fasten the strike to the frame using the screws included with the lock. Test the door’s operation to ensure all components are functioning as intended.