A century ago most business was conducted on a good faith handshake and usually concluded well for all parties involved. These days business has become much more complex with differing credit options, terms, and special options that have led companies to put a lot of time into their account receivable departments. Unfortunately even with technology the business climate has also seen a rise in delinquent accounts that are hard to track down and get paid. This is where professional recovery consultants play an important role getting those payments in and keeping your company on track without wasting precious in house resources to try and recover the monies due.
With the economy still struggling to make a comeback many smaller companies are still trying to find their way and when it comes time to pay bills they often try to pay as late as they can.
Better Health Outcomes
- According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the pharmaceutical industry develops and produces products that help treat a variety of diseases, saving millions of lives and helping people suffering from diseases and illnesses to recover and lead more productive lives. The pharmaceutical industry develops drugs that treat every type of condition imaginable, such as influenza, sexually transmitted diseases, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hepatitis, Parkinson's disease and cancer, to name a few. Many of these are devastating and life-altering diseases, and these products help keep patients alive longer.
- While some may view the cost of pharmaceutical drugs as a negative aspect of the industry, you can also see cost as a benefit. According to the Pharmaceutcial Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), the market share of generic pharmaceuticals was between 42 and 58 percent in 2006. What this means is generic drugs are increasingly available to patients, which drives down costs. Most reports in the media discuss the high cost of drugs and lack of access for certain patients, but the reality is that drugs today are cheaper and more accessible than ever before due to increased competition in the marketplace. Additionally, economic development in countries like India and China are driving down global prices for pharmaceutical products even more.
- Pharmaceutical companies employed nearly 300,000 people in the United States in 2008, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and nearly 87 percent of the companies in the pharmaceutical industry employed more than 100 workers in 2008. The tax benefits to the United States are substantial as well. Pfizer alone posted $44 billion worth of revenue in 2008, according to Contract Pharma. The economic climate impacts the pharmaceutical industry, but profitable companies result in more taxable revenue for the U.S. People may criticize this amount of profit from one company, but consider this: The underlying goal of every single business is to make money. People single out pharmaceutical companies for making profits, but it's important to remember that they also create products that save millions of lives.
- Due to the complexity and the management of corporate proprietary processes, positions in this industry are highly valued. Higher levels of education are the norm in this industry. Research technicians are one of these positions because they conduct experiments under the watchful eyes of the lead scientist. Bachelors’ degrees are usually the minimum educational requirement, with masters and doctorate degrees preferred in the specialty areas. Workers on the factory floor on the other hand can get by with a high school diploma or General Equivalency Diploma and a certificate of ability to work with forklifts, as an example.
- If scientific research is your qualification, the reasons for joining a pharmaceutical company (pharma) may lie in the grand flexibility of conducting various research models or focusing on one thread of a larger spool, such as dedicating years to finding a process that may one day cure a disease.
After a discovery is found, the process is passed along to the other members of the research team such as the biotechnologist and on to others as well to find any variant that may harm or improve the quality of the newly discovered development or culture.
- In 2006, pharma and other medical manufacturing provided over 290,000 positions. Most in-facility positions are located Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, California, Texas, New Jersey, Indiana, North Carolina and Puerto Rico according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there should be a 23.7 increase in all positions by the year 2016. Most workers in the industry have a minimum of a bachelor degree and there are twice as many individuals with degrees as in any other industry.
- For persons with virtually any type of sales experience, the top of the mountain would be pharmaceutical sales. The benefits are simply outstanding and include a nice car with fun toys and two credit cards, one for gasoline and the other for entertaining customers, which happen to be physicians. The main responsibility is to convince the physician that the product you have works better than the product from the competitor. Physicians are showered with pens, cups, promotional samples, prescription forms and other materials that bear the product’s name and logo.
Success in the ability to convince physicians to prescribe a particular product is tracked by how much of the product is sold and/or ordered from the pharmacies in the zip code during a given time, which happens to be in the assigned territory.
The Final Word
- The pharmaceutical industry is a challenging and rewarding place to work, but be aware of companies that make false claims about preparing people to enter the industry by offering certificates of completion and/or training of some sort. Unless a company is recruiting right from the university, chances are that they want people with industry experience or verifiable success in advertising sales. The reason for this is simple: if success is proven in the advertising industry, then you know first hand what rejection is. In pharma sales, you will receive plenty of rejection.
- Western fashion has evolved over centuries. The 16th century in Europe saw apparel sewn with broad shoulders and heavy-cut velvet decorated by intricate lace and fine gold. This was especially seen in the fashion worn by aristocrats. Fast-forward two centuries, and women’s fashion consisted of domed skirts and cinched waists. Western society leaped into the 20th century with short skirts baring leg. As the fashion industry has evolved, designers have perfected new designs and brought into style new fabrics.
In the 19th century, English settlers brought the textile industry to the U.S. Women in the U.S. during the 1800s had their dresses tailor-made. As the tailors noticed similarities among the women for whom they sewed, they developed patterns. Hence, pattern making was born. Apprentices learned the patterns and how to make them, becoming designers and dressmakers. The fashion industry continued to evolve into the mega-marketing industry it has now become.
- The fashion industry is made up of clothing manufacturers, designers, models, behind-the-scenes make-up and hair artists, merchandisers and buyers. The single element common among these roles is that these professions are extremely creative. Each professional has been trained in a highly specialized field.
The fashion industry is important to the culture of each society, as the byproducts of each designer provide a style or identification of the person wearing the clothes. Style is an identity marker, and the fashion industry is essential to transforming individuals solely by what they wear.
- Aside from designing one-piece wonders for elite clientele such as Hollywood mega stars, which serves as a catalyst for more economical couture designs, the fashion industry clothes us all. Be it famous brand-name jeans or brands marketed solely by retail chain stores, the fashion industry is the source of all the designs, material choices and marketing via models showing off the clothes on Paris, Milan or New York runways.
- The fashion industry is composed of two primary sectors: ready-to-wear (couture) and haute couture (high fashion). Ready-to-wear makes up the bulk of fashion because it is less expensive than haute couture and far more easily accessible. Designers showing promise might make their mark designing haute couture.
- The fashion industry spans the globe. Western societies have metamorphosed drastically since earlier centuries. Asian societies, too, like India’s enormous Bollywood film industry, make use of extremely diverse and talented pools of designers who dress every movie’s heroines and heroes.
- Determine what type of clothing you want to buy. Wholesale clothing includes many different types of items. You can choose to buy wholesale outwear such as hats and coats. You can also choose to buy dresses, shorts, shirts and skirts. Buy wholesale clothing for a specific season at least three months in advance. Orders for fall items should be placed no later than early June.
- Obtain an EIN. An EIN is an Employee Identification Number. The IRS assigns an EIN to people in business for tax purposes. You can get one for free from the IRS website. An EIN identifies you as a member of the apparel industry to other industry members. Some wholesalers will let you purchase from their stores without one. Many will not.
- Investigate wholesalers. Wholesale clothing retailers are quite varied. Some wholesalers specialize in a specific area of clothing such as sportswear or formal gowns. Others offer clothing for purchase in many different areas. If you are opening up a clothing store, you may have to work with many different wholesale clothing vendors in order to stock your store.
- Buy clothing. Many wholesale clothing vendors typically have both a retail store and a website. Buying from a retail store can be easier if you live near one. If you don’t have a wholesale clothing vendor in your area, you can still order items online. Look closely at the website. A site should have a picture of each item for sale. The site should also include a detailed description of the clothing offered including the type of material used, the sizes offered and the composition of details such as buttons and other fastenings.
- Place an order. Orders from retail stores can be delivered to your door if you don’t have a truck for larger items. Wholesale clothing orders can also be shipped to your address from a website. Allow at least a week for delivery.
- Cafés generate much of their revenues from coffee, a product that accounted for more than 83 percent of hot beverage sales in 2012, according to the Small Business Development Center Network. Tea and other nonalcoholic drinks are also favorites among café customers. However, snacks and light meals contribute significantly toward the overall revenues of cafes.
- The coffee and snack shops industry is a $30 billion market that grew at average annual rates of 2.7 percent between 2009 and 2013, according to a report the IBISWorld website in 2014. This shows the industry grew at steady rates through those years, despite the negative impact of the recession that rocked the economy from 2008 to 2010.
The Competitive Landscape
- Independently owned cafes can thrive, provided the owners correctly identify their niches and avoid direct competition with the big brand name stores. According to Business Valuation Marketing, the top 50 coffee shop companies–think Starbucks–have captured around 70% of the U.S. market. Small companies can compete by offering products the larger competitors don’t provide. For example, cafes offering individually brewed coffee in exotic flavors can generate a large following among coffee enthusiasts.
I did not want to pay hundreds of dollars for software I did not need. I just needed to make some nice invoices for billing clients. I did not need to set up a record keeping system. I already have one that works just fine for me. However, clients nowadays expect computer generated invoices, so I decided to visit invoicehome.com to see what they offered. I think it is pretty cool that they offer use of some free invoice templates. They are basic ones, but they are nice.
I decided to go for one of the other templates. I found one that perfectly represented my business. I could not have found a better invoice layout with graphics if I paid someone to make it for me.
A spring is a versatile article used to store mechanical vitality. Springs are typically made out of spring steel. There are an extensive number of spring outlines; in regular use the term frequently alludes to curl springs. Little springs can be twisted from pre-solidified stock, while bigger ones are produced using toughened steel and solidified after manufacture. Some non-ferrous metals are additionally utilized including phosphor bronze and titanium for parts requiring erosion resistance and beryllium copper for springs conveying electrical current (as a result of its low electrical resistance).
Torsion springs are springs that works by torsion or contorting; that is, an adaptable versatile article that stores mechanical vitality when it is bent. When it is contorted, it applies a power (really torque) the other way, relative to the sum (point) it is wound. There are two sorts. A torsion bar is a straight bar of metal or elastic that is subjected to winding (shear stress) about its pivot by torque connected at its closures.
A more fragile structure utilized as a part of touchy instruments, called a torsion fibre comprises of a fibre of silk, glass, or quartz under strain, that is turned about its pivot. The other sort, a helical torsion spring, is a metal bar or wire fit as a fiddle of a helix (loop) that is subjected to winding about the curl’s pivot by sideways strengths (bowing minutes) connected to its finishes, bending the loop more tightly. This phrasing can be befuddling in light of the fact that in a helical torsion spring the strengths following up on the wire are really twisting anxieties, not tensional (shear) stresses.
The resilience of the springs allows their use as a sensing element in a spring balance. Comparison of elongation of the spring under the effect of loads with known and unknown weight makes it easy to determine the unknown weight. Elastic vibrations of the spring If the load is suspended on a spring pull down, and then let go, the sequence of its positions in space describe a curve illustrated in the picture above; Red arrows show the elastic force of the spring, green – weight of the load. If there were no friction, slowing the movement of the spring, she would stretch and shrink forever.
If you are looking to buy torsion spring or any other kind of spring, then you can search for it on net. You can also order custom springs as per your requirement. For that you need to find a reliable seller. You can surely use internet for this purpose as well. We hope that this article was able to provide you some useful information about springs in general and torsion springs in particular. You can find more interesting data about springs by searching on the internet. You can find some amazing images, video and other tutorials relate to springs online. In case you have any queries related to this article, then please feel free to get in touch with us.
Winifred Mullins is a content producer for a line of online content networks (comprising companies like Customspring.ca torsion springs), who shares opinion on a variety of industrial equipment themes and other areas alike. A tireless nomad of digital space and an influential figure in anything of significance to the industrial equipment.
When my husband and I started to seriously consider online marketing as a way to make more money, we knew that we were going to have to learn a good bit even though we both have had marketing experience in the past. There are a lot of similarities between online and offline marketing, but there are quite a few differences too. That is why we wanted to learn as much as we could from Ewen Chia. I know a lot of people might not know who he is, but those of us in the marketing world strive to have the same kind of online success that he has had.
He started in the 1990s, and he has worked extremely hard to get where he is today. That doesn’t mean it is too late for others though, even though he has been doing this for nearly 20 years.
I wanted to invest in a gauge as I own a production shop where the screws and the nuts have to be inspected for acceptance. As it is my own business, I have to be careful about the money I invest in it. These thread gauges are mainly used in the shop for acceptance gauging of threaded parts. These have to be checked properly so that I ended up purchasing the right products. There are different types of gauges which need to be used for the process. On searching online, you will come across many manufacturers and suppliers who offer a wide range of tinkering instruments. To choose the right type, you need to first know which type would suit your requirement.
These manufacturers offer thread ring and plus gauges. These include GO / NOGO, RH/LH (right hand and left hand). The solid ring gauge can be made use of to check the acceptance of a screw which is an externally threaded part. Usually the GO and NO-GO rings are separate pieces. This helps to check the correctness of the thread through depth and pitch diameter. The adjustable ones are also ring shaped which have a split and an adjusting and locking screw feature which helps for fine tuning.
Thread plug gauges can be used to inspect the acceptance of a nut that is an internally threaded part. It will be double ended for small threading parts. One end will carry the GO gauge while the other end will carry the NO-GO. There are usually two separate pieces for larger parts. This type helps to check the accuracy of the pitch diameter.
There are some factors you need to consider while looking for a manufacturer –
- A professional supplier should have a good stock of the gauges that the customers would require. They should be available in varied sizes to meet different customer needs.
- They are very particular about the quality of products they offer. They adhere to strict quality control in the manufacturing process. They ensure to test equipments to provide the best to customers.
- It is always good to look for manufacturers of thread ring gauges who provide customize production services to meet unique customer requirements. They provide plugs or rings as per your specifications. When I wanted to purchase these products, I was not able to find rings as per my requirement. This is when I came across a manufacturer who offered customized production services and ensured to deliver the product I was looking for.
- There may be times when you will need products quickly. For such times, you need to ensure to choose a supplier who offers quick delivery of products on an urgent basis. This does not require you to wait not affecting any of your processes.
- You need to check the customers they have provided services to, to get an idea of their quality and popularity in the industry. A good portfolio directly signifies high quality service.
It is essential that you purchase from a manufacturer that has good customer reviews. This is one thing I searched well on the internet as I knew that if the customers of a company are satisfied, the product will be of good quality.
The PET industry has been serving the needs of a variety of industries for a long time. Today, PET containers are preferred as the most appropriate solution for packaging of a variety of Products. These products include the food items, medicines and other pharmaceutical products, beverages and chemicals. If the packaging of these products is not with good quality, it may lead to degraded quality of the products which is not acceptable as these products are directly associated with the health of the products. In order to provide best safety and hygiene to the products, it is important to make sure that the packaging used for these products is of best quality. It is the responsibility of the manufacturers of PET containers to make user that the containers provided by them to the clients are of best quality and can offer the best safety in the products.
There is a variety of quality testing instruments and QA procedures that must be used in the PET industries for quality assurance of the PET containers. These testing instruments make sure that the PET containers that are provided to the clients are strong enough to survive the excess of pressure exerted on them by the products inside them. Here are some of the testing instruments that are used for quality assurance of the Products in PET industries.
The PET containers are transported in batches of 10 or 12 bottles and are stacked like one upon another. This exerts an enormous amount of pressure and a compressive force on the bottle. This excess of pressure may cause deformation of the Bottles. This deformation may also cause the degradation of the quality of the products that are packaged inside them. In order to ensure the best safety of the products, the bottles are tested for deformation due to compressive forces from the top with the help of a Top load tester. The top load tester helps in determining the maximum amount of compressive load that a PET container or bottle can bear without deformation. The test is commenced in batches of twelve bottles, and then an average of the forces needed for deformation of the bottles is taken. This gives an accurate analysis of the highest amount of force that a bottle can bear during storage or transit without being deformed.
With the help of a top load tester, the manufacturers can make sure that the PET containers they are providing to their clients are sure to provide best safety and hygiene to the products that are packaged using these containers.
- Most modern drug companies were formed in the early 20th centuries; the discoveries of insulin and penicillin lead to a developing industry for manufacture and distribution. Pharmaceutical companies continued to grow and evolve through the 1950s and 1960s, with the development and production of drugs like cortisone, heart medications, chlorpromazine, valium and “the Pill.”
By the 1980s, India had become the primary producer of drugs without patent protection (generics), and pharmaceuticals had moved into drugs for cancer and AIDS. Since the 1990s, the industry has adapted to a changing role by using direct-to-consumer advertising and with the production of SSRIs like Prozac (fluoxetine).
Pharmaceutical Expansion, 1990-2008
- Thanks to the revenues from only several blockbuster drugs (defined as a drug that earns more than $1 billion a year), which accounts for roughly one third of market value for pharmaceuticals, the pharmaceutical industry expanded during the 1990s and into the 2000s.
These best-selling drugs continue to earn a high percentage of total revenue for big pharma. The leading blockbuster drug, Lipitor by Pfizer, brought in more han $12.2 billion in 2007. Plavix by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Sanofi-Aventis; Celebrex by Pfizer; Prilosec and Nexium by AstraZeneca; and Lovenox by Sanofi-Aventis, earned an additional $17 billion combined for their respective companies.
- Big pharma is a game of innovation, research and development and the race to find the next best-selling drug. Since blockbuster drug sales dominate revenues for many firms, pharmaceutical firms must engage in expensive research to try to find new drugs. Since most chemical compounds ultimately do not go on to become blockbusters, finding the next big drug is a costly process. To offset the large up-front costs to pharmaceutical companies, once firms develop a drug that gains FDA approval, the patents on that drug allow the pharmaceutical firm to recover the costs of research and development.
Future of the Industry
- The future of the industry looks guarded. There will be a reduced but still positive growth. IMS Health, a healthcare market research firm, issued a report in April 2009 cutting back the growth forecasts for pharmaceutical sales from 4.5 to 5.5 percent to only 2.5 to 3.5 percent in total sales, down from a prediction of $820 billion to $750 billion). This is largely in response to the economic downturn beginning in 2008, suggests a senior executive at IMS, and the “correlation between demand for medicines and … key economic variables.”
- Several blockbuster drugs are due to expire in the next few years, such as Pfizer’s Lipitor in 2011 and AstraZeneca’s Nexium in 2014, possibly endangering the revenues of the pharmaceutical industry for the next three to five years. IMS predicts that the growth rate for pharmaceutical firms will hover around 3 to 6 percent moving into 2010 to 2012, down from the average rate of about 7 perecent from 2004 to 2007, as a result.
Predictions also suggest that demand for medications might fall in the developed world (especially the United States, by perhaps 1 percent), further reducing revenues for big pharma, although some of this decline will be offset from rising purchases in the developing world, especially Russia, South Korea, Mexico and China.
- Regulations in the pharmaceutical industry began in the early 1900s. The Food and Drugs Act, enacted in 1906, was the first of more than than 200 laws and acts that aimed to protect consumers from drug companies. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, passed in 1934, gave the FDA the right to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 ensured FDA staff would have the resources needed to conduct further regulatory reviews when necessary for new drugs and devices.
Regulatory Guidance Drug Registration and Listing
- The FDA also helps regulate the pharmaceutical industry by making drug companies register all of their products and manufacturing locations. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act states that pharmaceutical drug manufacturers must register their establishment(s), as well as submit a listing with the FDA for every product they plan to distribute commercially. This regulatory system helps the FDA keep track of human and veterinary drugs.
Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications (DDMAC)
- The FDA’s Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications (DDMAC) reviews prescription drug advertising and promotional information to make sure all promotional materials are truthful, balanced and not misleading. Pharmaceutical companies must submit all promotional marketing materials to DDMAC, and DDMAC in turn provides feedback on copy and graphics that can’t be used. DDMAC is also responsible for reviewing complaints about possible promotional violations, and taking action against companies who don’t comply with FDA regulations. Lastly, DDMAC compares the product labeling and promotional materials of similar pharmaceutical products to compare them and ensure that regulatory restrictions are met.
- Occasionally, the FDA will come across a misleading claim about a pharmaceutical product, and it will submit a warning letter to the company who made the claim. The CDER Freedom of Information Office (FOI) controls the warning letter process. Once a warning letter has been submitted to a pharmaceutical company, the company must address the issue, or it will face serious fines and other repercussions.
- Create a business plan. Include the general idea of the pharmaceutical company. Devote additional time detailing where the funding will come from. Since pharmaceutical companies usually need large investments of millions of dollars, the financial projections and estimates should be very detailed and credible. Hire an accountant, a lawyer, and a business professional with experience in pharmaceutical startups. Build the business plan with this team of experts. Include possible distribution channels, promotional plans, an analysis of the competition and break-even analysis. Use the business plan to present the idea to investors and banks to obtain funding.
- Recruit talent. Professional occupations in life sciences and physical science have the highest demand in pharmaceutical companies. They usually work in the applied research area of research and development. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, a substantial part of the research and development budget goes towards this type of research and scientists. To recruit the best talent, you need to offer higher-than-average wages and additional benefits. Study the competition to compare salaries and benefits. If you have a pool of talented and accomplished professionals ready to work for your company, it can help you secure funding to start the company.
- Set up a location for your pharmaceutical company. Once funding for your company has come through, you should construct or rent a building where you can do chemical research, perform administrative operations and have access to transportation lines such as airports or trains. Work with your scientific talent to create a list of supplies and equipment you will need to start. Hire a laboratory manager to handle personnel and day-to-day operations. Hire business professionals to handle financial analysis reports and to manage daily and monthly budgets.
- Apply for and display government and state licenses. You will need building permits, permits related specifically to medical equipment, bio-hazard waste licenses, business permits and high insurance coverage.
- Create a marketing team. Hire a team of professionals preferably with experience in the pharmaceutical industry. Develop a plan to target other companies and health providers along the distribution line. Build relationships with clinics and medical establishments. Send them free information about new drugs or research developments, and create radio, TV, and print commercials for new treatments and medicines.
- Build a competitive advantage by supplying the growing demand for natural health products and alternative medicine.
Soil testing methods vary across the board. Often, the modern testing method is the better. This is because they feature modern technology that traditional tools and approaches lack. Additionally, tests developed at later dates also offer more updated methodologies that are more likely to comply with recent industry standards. Modern portable light weight deflectometers for example, are preferred by engineers and designers, not only because they are new, but because they offer many benefits (both technical and economic) over traditional tools and methods.
However, this is not to say that traditional methods don’t have their merits. Depending on the type of substrates and the extent of area being tested, some testing methods and tools are still more suitable and advantageous than others. For testing pavements, subgrades, and subbases, the light weight deflectometer is definitely a superior choice of tool.
Lightweight deflectometers offer the same accuracy as the larger devices on which their design was based upon—traditional falling weight deflectometers (FWDs). These tools on the other hand, provide the unique benefit of portability because they are a lot more compact than FWDs whose sheer size and weight often delimits the types of soils and the kinds of areas they can test. Light weight deflectometers, unlike huge machines can test a range of different materials, ranging from asphaltic pavements to unbound subbases and subgrades, thinner, more sensitive pavements, and even recycled, foamed bitumen-bound materials.
Other types of soil testing tools and processes require calibration and tedious set-up (such as time-consuming safety tests), which can cause inaccuracies and problematic readings. Light weight deflectometers don’t. In fact, these modern devices streamline the testing process and only require single-person handling so you can get other hands on deck to work on other aspects of the project instead of spending hours on field testing. High quality light weight deflectometers can perform as many as 30 tests within the same period it takes to perform one Benkelman Beam test. Not only do they streamline the testing process, light weight deflectometers also offer superior result accuracy, which remain unaffected by little material changes over the length of the pavement.
In addition to quicker and more convenient testing, light weight deflectometers are also cheaper to run and operate. While initial investment for the machine may be significant, long-term benefits are obvious over other methods like nuclear density testing, CBR tests, and other static plate load bearing tests. light weight deflectometer
Light weight deflectometer devices make it easier to determine the compaction quality and soil bearing capacity of ground materials, pavements, and non-cohesive subbases. They allow for uncomplicated soil testing, providing a huge improvement on tedious traditional testing methods. The principle for light weight deflectometers was first developed as early as 1982 by a German company. Since then, the device’s processes and mechanisms have been continuously optimized.
Thanks to the development of light weight deflectometers and its testing principles, analysis of in-built soil layers are carried out more quickly and without the need for bulky equipment and vehicle. This makes them suitable for testing sites and areas that are difficult to access. LWD machines have varied applications in many areas of civil engineering works. They are useful in road construction, railway and airport runway engineering, and other types of earthworks. They can also be used for quality control and protection of utility trenches and canal construction as well as in the examination and evaluation of foundation fillings and roadbeds.
Light weight deflectometers are suitable for self monitoring as they are designed based on universal standards. They are also easy to handle and provide immediately available results. The modern designs of LWDs feature a sturdy construction with an ergonomic configuration so they can easily be transported and operated by one person. Safety features are also installed to ensure security when the unit is in use or in storage.
The most recent version of load bearing capacity measurement device, LWD is highly useful during the early stages of construction especially when testing subgrade and other materials that are difficult to access using traditional testing methods and measuring equipment. It is also said that LWDs have great potential in supplementing and even replacing some of the now obsolete means to measure soil suitability during pavement design and construction phases. Some of the testing methods and equipment the light weight deflectometer supplements well include the falling weight deflectometer, dynamic cone penetrometer, static plate load testers, and vane test equipment.
The load bearing capacity of pavement surfaces is important to determine during the initial stages of the design process. This helps ensure the suitability of the area in question for the project at hand. While light weight deflectometers are fairly new in the scene, they are showing great promise when it comes to soil quality control for different civil engineering works and processes. TERRATEST GmbH – Light Weight Deflectometer
- Design Assistant is an entry level fashion design opportunity that is more administrative than creative, with duties including assisting the design team with fashion illustration and storyboard layout. Many college graduates start at this level. Typically after six months working as a design assistant the next advancement opportunity is an assistant designer position.
- Assistant designers are similar to design assistants, however the assistant designer gets more hands on production experience with pattern making and assisting with sample garment construction. Typically after spending three or more years as an assistant designer you can advance to an associate designer or technical designer position.
- The associate designer participates in designing garments for the seasonal collections and works closely with the head designer for creative input and design approval. With five or more years experience as an associate designer, you can seek out a position as a head designer.
- According to CareerThreads.com, technical designers are responsible for making sure the fashion designer’s sketch can be made into a wearable garment by overseeing the production side of creating a fashion line. As with the associate designer you will need at least five years experience as a technical designer to advance to head designer.
- The head designer is responsible for the fashion collections produced each season regardless if the collections are failures or successes. Typically a minimum of five years work experience as an associate designer or technical designer is needed to progress to this level; however, it is common for a design firm to require seven to 10 years experience.
- The years of experience you have, job location and employer are the main factors which determine what salary you make at each level. Fashion designing salaries can be lower than $32,150 (entry level positions) according to the BLS or as high as $157,000 or more a year for head designer positions.